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Sökning: L773:0028 0836 OR L773:1476 4687 > (2010-2019)

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51.
  • Cederwall, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for a spin-aligned neutron-proton paired phase from the level structure of 92Pd
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 469:7328, s. 68-71
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Shell structure and magic numbers in atomic nuclei were generally explained by pioneering work(1) that introduced a strong spin-orbit interaction to the nuclear shell model potential. However, knowledge of nuclear forces and the mechanisms governing the structure of nuclei, in particular far from stability, is still incomplete. In nuclei with equal neutron and proton numbers (N = Z), enhanced correlations arise between neutrons and protons (two distinct types of fermions) that occupy orbitals with the same quantum numbers. Such correlations have been predicted to favour an unusual type of nuclear superfluidity, termed isoscalar neutron-proton pairing(2-6), in addition to normal isovector pairing. Despite many experimental efforts, these predictions have not been confirmed. Here we report the experimental observation of excited states in the N = Z = 46 nucleus Pd-92. Gamma rays emitted following the Ni-58(Ar-36,2n)Pd-92 fusion-evaporation reaction were identified using a combination of state-of-the-art high-resolution c-ray, charged-particle and neutron detector systems. Our results reveal evidence for a spin-aligned, isoscalar neutron-proton coupling scheme, different from the previous prediction(2-6). We suggest that this coupling scheme replaces normal superfluidity (characterized by seniority coupling(7,8)) in the ground and low-lying excited states of the heaviest N = Z nuclei. Such strong, isoscalar neutron-proton correlations would have a considerable impact on the nuclear level structure and possibly influence the dynamics of rapid proton capture in stellar nucleosynthesis.
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52.
  • Cederwall, B., et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for a spin-aligned neutron-proton paired phase from the level structure of Pd-92
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 469:7328, s. 68-71
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Shell structure and magic numbers in atomic nuclei were generally explained by pioneering work(1) that introduced a strong spin-orbit interaction to the nuclear shell model potential. However, knowledge of nuclear forces and the mechanisms governing the structure of nuclei, in particular far from stability, is still incomplete. In nuclei with equal neutron and proton numbers (N = Z), enhanced correlations arise between neutrons and protons (two distinct types of fermions) that occupy orbitals with the same quantum numbers. Such correlations have been predicted to favour an unusual type of nuclear superfluidity, termed isoscalar neutron-proton pairing(2-6), in addition to normal isovector pairing. Despite many experimental efforts, these predictions have not been confirmed. Here we report the experimental observation of excited states in the N = Z = 46 nucleus Pd-92. Gamma rays emitted following the Ni-58(Ar-36,2n)Pd-92 fusion-evaporation reaction were identified using a combination of state-of-the-art high-resolution c-ray, charged-particle and neutron detector systems. Our results reveal evidence for a spin-aligned, isoscalar neutron-proton coupling scheme, different from the previous prediction(2-6). We suggest that this coupling scheme replaces normal superfluidity (characterized by seniority coupling(7,8)) in the ground and low-lying excited states of the heaviest N = Z nuclei. Such strong, isoscalar neutron-proton correlations would have a considerable impact on the nuclear level structure and possibly influence the dynamics of rapid proton capture in stellar nucleosynthesis.
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53.
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54.
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55.
  • Chapron, Guillaume, et al. (författare)
  • Don't let triage put a gloss on extinctions
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 554, s. 300-300
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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56.
  • Chapron, Guillaume (författare)
  • The environment needs cryptogovernance
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 545, s. 403-405
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)
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57.
  • Chapron, Guillaume (författare)
  • Why the inaction on biodiversity?
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 467, s. 401-401
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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58.
  • Chen, Donglei, et al. (författare)
  • The stem osteichthyan Andreolepis and the origin of tooth replacement
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 539:7628, s. 237-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The teeth of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates) show rigidly patterned, unidirectional replacement that may or may not be associated with a shedding mechanism. These mechanisms, which are critical for the maintenance of the dentition, are incongruently distributed among extant gnathostomes. Although a permanent tooth-generating dental lamina is present in all chondrichthyans, many tetrapods and some teleosts, it is absent in the non-teleost actinopterygians. Tooth-shedding by basal hard tissue resorption occurs in most osteichthyans (including tetrapods) but not in chondrichthyans. Here we report a three-dimensional virtual dissection of the dentition of a 424-million-year-old stem osteichthyan, Andreolepis hedei, using propagation phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography, with a reconstruction of its growth history. Andreolepis, close to the common ancestor of all extant osteichthyans, shed its teeth by basal resorption but probably lacked a permanent dental lamina. This is the earliest documented instance of resorptive tooth shedding and may represent the primitive osteichthyan mode of tooth replacement.
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59.
  • Cho, Hae Sung, et al. (författare)
  • Extra adsorption and adsorbate superlattice formation in metal-organic frameworks
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 527:7579, s. 503-U193
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have a high internal surface area and widely tunable composition(1,2), which make them useful for applications involving adsorption, such as hydrogen, methane or carbon dioxide storage(3-9). The selectivity and uptake capacity of the adsorption process are determined by interactions involving the adsorbates and their porous host materials. But, although the interactions of adsorbate molecules with the internal MOF surface(10-17) and also amongst themselves within individual pores(18-22) have been extensively studied, adsorbate-adsorbate interactions across pore walls have not been explored. Here we show that local strain in the MOF, induced by pore filling, can give rise to collective and long-range adsorbate-adsorbate interactions and the formation of adsorbate superlattices that extend beyond an original MOF unit cell. Specifically, we use in situ small-angle X-ray scattering to track and map the distribution and ordering of adsorbate molecules in five members of the mesoporous MOF-74 series along entire adsorption-desorption isotherms. We find in all cases that the capillary condensation that fills the pores gives rise to the formation of 'extra adsorption domains'-that is, domains spanning several neighbouring pores, which have a higher adsorbate density than non-domain pores. In the case of one MOF, IRMOF-74-V-hex, these domains form a superlattice structure that is difficult to reconcile with the prevailing view of pore-filling as a stochastic process. The visualization of the adsorption process provided by our data, with clear evidence for initial adsorbate aggregation in distinct domains and ordering before an even distribution is finally reached, should help to improve our understanding of this process and may thereby improve our ability to exploit it practically.
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60.
  • Chomiuk, L., et al. (författare)
  • Binary orbits as the driver of gamma-ray emission and mass ejection in classical novae
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Advanced Radio Astronomy in Europe (RADIONET3).
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Classical novae are the most common astrophysical thermonuclear explosions, occurring on the surfaces of white dwarf stars accreting gas from companions in binary star systems(1). Novae typically expel about 10(-4) solar masses of material at velocities exceeding 1,000 kilometres per second. However, the mechanism of mass ejection in novae is poorly understood, and could be dominated by the impulsive flash of thermonuclear energy(2), prolonged optically thick winds(3) or binary interaction with the nova envelope(4). Classical novae are now routinely detected at gigaelectronvolt gamma-ray wavelengths(5), suggesting that relativistic particles are accelerated by strong shocks in the ejecta. Here we report high-resolution radio imaging of the gamma-ray-emitting nova V959 Mon. We find that its ejecta were shaped by the motion of the binary system: some gas was expelled rapidly along the poles as a wind from the white dwarf, while denser material drifted out along the equatorial plane, propelled by orbital motion(6,7). At the interface between the equatorial and polar regions, we observe synchrotron emission indicative of shocks and relativistic particle acceleration, thereby pinpointing the location of gamma-ray production. Binary shaping of the nova ejecta and associated internal shocks are expected to be widespread among novae(8), explaining why many novae are gamma-ray emitters(5).
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