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  • Goulet, Anne-Christine, et al. (författare)
  • Selenomethionine induces sustained ERK phosphorylation leading to cell-cycle arrest in human colon cancer cells
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - 0143-3334 .- 1460-2180. ; 26:1, s. 109-117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Selenomethionine (SeMet) is being tested alone and in combination with other agents in cancer chemoprevention trials. However, the molecular targets and the signaling mechanism underlying the anticancer effect of this compound are not completely clear. Here, we provide evidence that SeMet can induce cell-growth arrest and that the growth inhibition is associated with S-G2/M cell-cycle arrest. Coincidentally with the cell-cycle arrest, we observed a striking increase in cyclin B as well as phosphorylation of the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc2. Since activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade has been associated with cell-cycle arrest and growth inhibition, we evaluated the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). We found that SeMet induced phosphorylation of the MAPK ERK in a dose-dependent manner. We also demonstrate phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK) by SeMet. Additionally, we show phosphorylation of histone H3 in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of p90RSK and histone H3 were both antagonized by the MEK inhibitor U0126, implying that SeMet-induced phosphorylation of p90RSK and histone H3 are at least in part ERK pathway dependent. Based on these results, we propose that SeMet induced growth arrest and phosphorylation of histone H3 are mediated by persistent ERK and p90RSK activation. These new data provide valuable insights into the biological effects of SeMet at clinically relevant concentrations.
  • Hakkola, Jukka, et al. (författare)
  • Expression of CYP1B1 in human adult and fetal tissues and differential inducibility of CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 by Ah-receptor ligands in human placenta and cultured cells
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - 0143-3334 .- 1460-2180. ; 18:2, s. 391-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Expression of the Ah receptor-regulated cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1) gene was studied in human adult and fetal tissues and cells in culture by reverse transcriptase-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In adults, CYP1B1 mRNA was detected in liver, lymphocytes, cells of bronchoalveolar lavage samples and uterine endometrium, but not in lung. The level of expression was very low in adult liver and only three out of six fetal livers expressed CYP1B1. Extrahepatic fetal tissues, especially brains and kidneys, expressed high levels of CYP1B1. CYP1B1 mRNA was constitutively detected at a low level in first trimester and full-term placental samples. A competitive RT-PCR assay was developed to assess the regulation of CYP1B1. CYP1B1 mRNA was not induced in placenta by maternal cigarette smoking. Inducibility of CYP1B1 in cells in culture by the Ah receptor ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin was studied in primary fibroblasts and chorion carcinoma cell line JEG-3 having different CYP1A1 induction properties. Inducibility of CYP1B1 was found to be regulated independently from CYP1A1. In JEG-3 cells CYP1A1 mRNA was induced up to 9000-fold, while the expression of CYP1B1 was not affected. Expression of Ah receptor and Ah receptor nuclear translocator (regulators of the CYP1 family) was determined in human placenta and in the JEG-3 cell line. Expression of these transcription factors was found neither to be co-regulated nor affected by Ah receptor ligands. This study provides evidence that in addition to the Ah receptor complex, other cell-specific factors modulate the response of CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 to Ah receptor ligands.
  • Heikkinen, Katri, et al. (författare)
  • RAD50 and NBS1 are breast cancer susceptibility genes associated with genomic instability
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334. ; 27:8, s. 1593-1599
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Mre11 complex, composed of RAD50, NBS1 and MRE11, has an essential role in the maintenance of genomic integrity and preventing cells from malignancy. Here we report the association of three Mre11 complex mutations with hereditary breast cancer susceptibility, studied by using a case-control design with 317 consecutive, newly diagnosed Northern Finnish breast cancer patients and 1000 geographically matched healthy controls (P = 0.0004). RAD50 687delT displayed significantly elevated frequency in the studied patients (8 out of 317, OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.5-12.5, P = 0.008), which indicates that it is a relatively common low-penetrance risk allele in this cohort. Haplotype analysis and the screening of altogether 512 additional breast cancer cases from Sweden, Norway and Iceland suggest that RAD50 687delT is a Finnish founder mutation, not present in the other Nordic cohorts. The RAD50 IVS3-1G > A splicing mutation leading to translational frameshift was observed in one patient, and the NBS1 Leu150Phe missense mutation affecting a conserved residue in the functionally important BRCA1 carboxyterminal (BRCT) domain in two patients, both being absent from 1000 controls. Microsatellite marker analysis showed that loss of the wild-type allele was not involved in the tumorigenesis in any of the studied mutation carriers, but they all showed increased genomic instability assessed by cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes (P = 0.006). In particular, the total number of chromosomal rearrangements was significantly increased (P = 0.002). These findings suggest an effect for RAD50 and NBS1 haploinsufficiency on genomic integrity and susceptibility to cancer.
  • Helleday, Thomas (författare)
  • Homologous recombination in cancer development, treatment and development of drug resistance
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - 0143-3334. ; 31:6, s. 955-960
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are substrates for homologous recombination (HR) repair, it is becoming apparent that DNA lesions produced at replication forks, for instance by many anticancer drugs, are more significant substrates for HR repair. Cells defective in HR are hypersensitive to a wide variety of anticancer drugs, including those that do not produce DSBs. Several cancers have mutations in or epigenetically silenced HR genes, which explain the genetic instability that drives cancer development. There are an increasing number of reports suggesting that mutation or epigenetic silencing of HR genes explains the sensitivity of cancers to current chemotherapy treatments. Furthermore, there are also many examples of re-expression of HR genes in tumours to explain drug resistance. Emerging data suggest that there are several different subpathways of HR, which can compensate for each other. Unravelling the overlapping pathways in HR showed that BRCA1- and BRCA2-defective cells rely on the PARP protein for survival. This synthetic lethal interaction is now being exploited for selective treatment of BRCA1- and BRCA2-defective cancers with PARP inhibitors. Here, I discuss the diversity of HR and how it impacts on cancer with a particular focus on how HR can be exploited in future anticancer strategies.
  • Hellerbrand, Claus, et al. (författare)
  • Reduced expression of CYLD in human colon and hepatocellular carcinomas
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334. ; 28:1, s. 21-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CYLD was originally identified as a tumor suppressor that is mutated in familial cylindromatosis. Recent studies suggested a role for CYLD in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) regulation. NF-kappaB activation has been connected with multiple aspects of oncogenesis but the underlying molecular mechanisms of persistent NF-kappaB activation in tumors remain largely unknown. Thus, we evaluated CYLD transcription in different colon and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and tissue samples, respectively. CYLD was downregulated or lost in all tumor cell lines investigated as compared with primary human colonic epithelial cells and hepatocytes, respectively. Further, quantitative PCR analysis revealed reduced CYLD mRNA expression in most tumor samples compared with non-tumorous tissue. Analysis on protein level confirmed these findings. Functional assays with CYLD transfected cell lines revealed that CYLD expression decreased NF-kappaB activity. Thus, functional relevant loss of CYLD expression may contribute to tumor development and progression, and may provide a new target for therapeutic strategies.
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