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  • Lundgren-Eriksson, L., et al. (författare)
  • Radio-and chemotoxicity in mice during hypothermia
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Anticancer Res. - 0250-7005 (Print). ; 21:5, s. 3269-74
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The influence of hypothermia induced by chlorpromazine (10-15 mg/kg given intra-peritoneally) on the survival from radiation and chemotherapy exposure in C57B1-mice, with or without tumour inoculation, was studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mice were exposed to either whole body irradiation (8 Gy), or doxorubicin (15 or 17.5 mg/kg i.p.), or cisplatin (20 mg/kg i. p.) and followed to ensuing death. The control mice maintained a rectal temperature of 38 degres C while those receiving chlorpromazine developed moderate hypothermia of 28 degrees C or 36 degrees C, dependent on the ambient temperature. RESULTS: Hypothermia of 28 degrees C protected the mice from radiation-induced death and acute doxorubicin toxicity, with males gaining more protection than females. The effects appeared dependent on temperature, not on chlorpromazine. Hypothermia protected the mice from acute cisplatin toxicity and increased the anti-tumour effects in both genders. Chlorpromazine itself did not cause toxicity, neither did it change the natural course of tumour progression. CONCLUSION: Hypothermia of 28 degrees C induced by chlorpromazine profoundly reduces radiation, doxorubicin-and cisplatin-induced toxicity in mice with males benefiting more than females. The hypothermia itself, not the chlorpromazine, was responsible for these effects. The anti-neoplastic activity was not compromised; rather, it was enhanced, particularly for cisplatin.
  • Ottosson, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Acute hematologic feasibility of G-CSF supported dose-escalated FEC therapy as adjuvant treatment after breast cancer surgery
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Anticancer Res. - 0250-7005 (Print). ; 19:5C, s. 4429-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A study of the feasibility of gradually increased epirubicin and cyclophosphamide dosage in an FEC regimen with G-CSF (granulocyte colony stimulating factor) support in 18 high-risk breast cancer patients as adjuvant treatment was carried out. The FEC regimen was initiated with 5-fluorouracil 600 mg/m2, epirubicin 75 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 900 mg/m2 together with G-CSF 5 micrograms/kg subcutaneously on days 2-15 q 3 weeks for nine cycles, increasing individually through four dose levels to a maximum of 5-FU 600 mg/m2 (not escalated), epirubicin 120 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 1800 mg/m2. Transient cytopenias were regularly observed without major clinical complications. Rapid recovery and a biphasic overshoot of granulocytes required individualization of G-CSF support. During the 6-month treatment period, a general decline in granulocytes, platelets and haemoglobin was observed, resulting in maximal dose intensity in the middle of the treatment period. Compared to a conventional FEC regimen (5-Fluorouracil 600 mg/m2, Epirubicin 60 mg/m2, Cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 q 3 w) without dose reductions, it was feasible to increase the dose of epirubicin by more than 50 per cent with an increased dose intensity between 25 and 70 per cent. The dose of cyclophosphamide was increased by more than 100 per cent. All patients suffered from complete alopecia and moderate nausea, but there was no acute cardiac or severe mucosal toxicity. It was concluded that intensified, G-CSF supported FEC therapy can be safely administered in an outpatient setting, provided the patients are thoroughly informed and adequately monitored. High-risk patients are enrolled in a study comparing the described regimen and a myeloablative regimen including peripheral stem-cell support. Breast cancer seems to respond to chemotherapy in a dose dependent manner, suggesting the use of dose intensified regimens (1,8,9,11). This approach is currently under investigation in studies comparing standard regimens with myelo-ablative regimens in high-risk primary breast cancer (3,10). In a Scandinavian multicenter study (2), two high dose regimens, G-CSF supported dose-escalated FEC and myeloablative cyclophosphamide-thiotepacarboplatin with peripheral stem cell support, are compared as adjuvant therapy in operable high-risk breast cancer. This phase I study was performed to assess the feasibility and achievable dose intensity of an individually dose-escalated FEC regimen not in previous use.
  • Palm, Stig, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Cell growth kinetics of the human cell line Colo-205 irradiated with photons and astatine-211 alpha-particles
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Anticancer Res. - 0250-7005 (Print). ; 20:3A, s. 1807-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cell growth kinetics following Astatine-211 (211At, alpha-particle emitter) and photon irradiation were studied for the human colorectal cell line Colo-205. A growth assay using 96-well plates was chosen. The growth kinetics could be simulated by assuming certain fractions of cells with various proliferative capacities, i.e. from none up to 5 cell doublings, in addition to the defined survivors with remaining unlimited clonogenic capacity. No significant difference in cell growth characteristics was seen between 211At and photon irradiation. The cell doubling time, as calculated from the increment in optical density, was compared with the results from BrdU experiments in the early phases of growth (Tpot = 18.5 +/- 0.6 h for LDR (low dose rate) photon irradiated and 20.3 +/- 0.8 hours for sham-irradiated cells 40-45 hours post-irradiation) confirming the transient accelerated growth of irradiated cells. No statistically significant difference in growth was found between LDR, MDR (medium dose rate) and HDR (high dose rate) photon irradiation.
  • Palm, Stig, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of the alpha-particle emitter At-211 and low-dose-rate gamma-radiation on the human cell line Colo-205 as studied with a growth assay
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Anticancer Res. - 0250-7005 (Print). ; 18:3A, s. 1671-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the biological effect of the alpha-particle-emitting isotope astatine-211 on the human cell line Colo-205 and to compare it with that of low-dose-rate gamma-radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plastic (PMMA) rotating phantoms were constructed, allowing precise dosimetry on a cellular level for both types of radiation. Growth assays using 96-well plates were used to estimate apparent cell survival for the two types of radiation. From this, the relative biological effect (RBE) could be estimated. RESULTS: Irradiation of the cells with 211At resulted in an RBE of 25.1 +/- 6.7 at 37% survival, and 17.3 +/- 2.5 at 10% survival, when compared with low-dose-rate gamma-irradiation. The absorbed dose at 37% survival, 0.12 Gy, corresponds to 2.2 traversals of alpha-particles through the cell nuclei. For cells irradiated with gamma-radiation (1 and 2 Gy), an apparent cell survival above unity was observed up to 50 hours post-irradiation, indicating a possible radiation hormesis effect. CONCLUSIONS: The RBE of 211At found in this growth-assay study was significantly higher than previously presented values. The difference might be due to the use of low-dose-rate gamma-radiation as reference. The RBE presented here could prove valuable when evaluating 211At-labelled compounds for radiotherapy.
  • Palm, Stig, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • In vitro effects of free 211At,211At-albumin and 211At-monoclonal antibody compared to external photon irradiation on two human cancer cell lines
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Anticancer Res. - 0250-7005 (Print). ; 20:2A, s. 1005-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to perform various 211At irradiations of importance for the evaluation of 211At-radioimmunotherapy, and compare the effect with that of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All irradiations were performed on low-concentration single-cell suspensions. Growth assays using 96-well plates were used to estimate apparent cell survival. Centrifuge tube filters were used to estimate the cell uptake and binding of 211At. RESULTS: A relative biological effect (RBE) of 12 +/- 2 (Colo-205) and 5.3 +/- 0.7 (OVCAR-3) was found from 211At-albumin irradiations. There was a 174 +/- 28 times higher free 211At concentration in the cell fraction than in the surrounding medium. For 211At-MAb, an 8,000-30,000 times higher concentration in the cell fraction was achieved, compared to the medium. Corrected for the uptake, an average of 31 +/- 2 ([211At]-astatine) or 26 +/- 5 ([211At]-MAb) decays per cell were required for 37% survival of Colo-205 cells. An average of 19 +/- 3 decays ([211At]-astatine) were required per OVCAR-3 cell. CONCLUSIONS: Cell uptake and binding of 211At was unexpectedly high, possibly favouring its therapeutic use. The binding is probably to the cell surface. The RBE is 5.3 +/- 0.7 for OVCAR-3 and 12 +/- 2 for Colo-205 cells.
  • Palm, Stig, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Single-cell irradiation from [211At] astatine-labeled C215 monoclonal antibody: improved estimates of radiosensitivity from measurements on cellular uptake and retention
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Anticancer Res. - 0250-7005 (Print). ; 23:2B, s. 1219-21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • New data on the biological effect of 211At-C215 monoclonal antibody in a slowly rotating, widely dispersed single-cell suspension of the human cancer cell line Colo-205 is presented. Cell growth curves of each experiment were used to calculate an apparent cell survival after irradiation. Uptake measurements provided the data needed to calculate the average number of 211At decays per cell in the cell suspension. The results from each experiment were then fit to a mono-exponential function. From the exponential fit, an average of 35 +/- 2 (SD) astatine-211 decays per cell are required for 37% apparent cell survival (D0).
  • Saha, B., et al. (författare)
  • LEA-135 expression: its association with a lower risk of recurrence and increased overall survival of patients with lymph node-positive primary invasive breast cancer
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Anticancer Res. - 0250-7005 (Print). ; 24:4, s. 2391-2400
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A retrospective study was undertaken to determine and compare the prognostic significance of LEA-135 protein expression by immunohistochemistry with other prognostic pathological parameters, with respect to recurrence and overall survival. This study was conducted in freshly-frozen tissue sections from a cohort of 367 patients having primary invasive breast cancer, with axillary lymph node metastasis. The association of LEA-135 expression was compared with estrogen and progesterone receptor status, segmentectomy or radical mastectomy and hormonal therapy or chemotherapy in terms of recurrence or disease-free survival. Pathologic parameters including tumor size, histological tumor type and histological grade, as well as age of patients at the time of initial diagnosis, and the treatments, together with a median follow-up of 8.8 years were contemplated for the study. Among these parameters, tumor size and histological grade were individually and significantly associated with an increased probability of recurrence (log rank p<0.001 in both cases) and short survival (log ranks p<0.001 and p=0.002, respectively), whereas age was only significantly associated with an increased probability of recurrence (log rank p=0.002) by univariate analysis. By multivariate analysis, both tumor size and histological grade remained statistically significant for recurrence (log rank p<0.001 and p=0.013, respectively) and overall survival (log ranks p<0.001 and p=0.016, respectively). Among the prognostic biomarkers, both ER and PR expression were associated with a decreased rate of recurrence (log ranks p<0.001 and p=0.008, respectively) and overall survival (log ranks p<0.001 and p=0.002, respectively) by univariate analysis. By multivariate analysis, only the ER expression remained significantly associated with a decreased recurrence and increased overall survival (log ranks p=0.023 and p=0.002, respectively). Patients with high (>50% positive cells) or moderate (5-50% positive cells) number of LEA-135-positive cells had a lower probability (46%) of recurrence at 10 years after surgery compared to 76% in LEA-135-negative patients (log rank p<0.001) by univariate analysis. Moreover, the probability of overall survival was higher in patients with high or moderate expression of LEA-135 (46% and 47%, respectively) compared to LEA-135-negative patients (24%) by univariate analysis (log rank p=0.009). By multivariate analysis, the association remained statistically significant for recurrence (log rank p<0.001) and survival (log rank p=0.002). However, there was no significant association between LEA-135 and any of the pathological parameters, age, hormone receptor status, the mode of surgery or the form of therapy (chemo- and/or hormonal) received by this cohort of patients. The results show that an improved prognosis was directly associated with the density of LEA-135-positive cancer cells, while loss of LEA-135 expression was associated with an aggressive phenotype of cancer cells during breast cancer progression. Thus, LEA-135 expression can be implicated as a significant and independent biomarker to identify and distinguish high- from low-risk patients with lymph node-positive invasive breast cancer for an aggressive treatment. Moreover, according to the present results, LEA-135 expression appears to be associated with the tumor cells that have retained certain normal biological characteristics, leading to their lack of aggressiveness and hence a better prognosis.
  • Yang, Y. Y., et al. (författare)
  • Growth and clonogenic assays compared for irradiated MCF-7 and Colo-205 cell lines
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Anticancer Res. - 0250-7005 (Print). ; 18:1A, s. 53-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Clonogenic assays have been the golden standard for the assessment of cytotoxic injury from irradiation or drugs. Since such assays are time consuming, growth assays, often with automatic quantifying equipment, are frequently used. Since these procedures do not immediately reflect loss of clonogenic capacity, it was considered important to validate the two procedures using gamma-irradiation (0, 2 and 4 Gy) of two human cell lines (MCF-7 and Colo-205). The cells were growing exponentially in 96-well plates and crystal violet staining resulted in optical densities proportional to cell number. The homogeneity of optical densities within the plates was optimal if the wells to be measured were surrounded by liquid-containing ones. The slopes of the exponential growth curves were decreased upon irradiation. An "apparent cell survival", the mean of the three lowest ratios between irradiated and control cells, was defined. It was compared with the SF2 and SF4 as found in parallel Courtenay-Mills assays. In this work we found a modest underestimation of cell survival using the growth assay, ranging from 0 to 17 per cent in absolute terms.
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