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  • Resultat 11-20 av 71
  • Föregående 1[2]34567...8Nästa
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11.
  • Benner, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Head in the clouds and feet on the ground
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 1471-5430. ; 39:2, s. 258-270
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract in Undetermined Few countries have increased their expenditure on R&D as rapidly as has China in recent years. However, so far, little academic attention has been paid to how decisions are taken and priorities set in Chinese research policy. This paper analyzes priority-setting in China's recent research policy. We find that China's research policy is driven by a variety of different, and sometimes conflicting, objectives, leading to a multitude of often overlapping initiatives. Secondly, mission- and excellence-driven research dominates over institution- and capacity-building and diffusion objectives. Thirdly, the process of setting research priorities is characterized by a combination of central goal articulation-top-down decision-making-and decentralization, deliberation and stakeholder consultation-bottom-up mechanisms. Aside from contributing to the understanding of China's research and innovation policy and system, this paper provides insights into policy change in China more generally and also into the processes which shape priority-setting in transition economies.
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12.
  • Benner, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Pathways to the entrepreneurial university: towards a global convergence
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 1471-5430. ; 35:9, s. 681-695
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper analyzes the transition to the entrepreneurial university as part of a broader shift to a knowledge-based economy, arising from a complex interplay between exogenous (top-down) and endogenous factors (bottom-up) of a more or less similar nature, combined in different ways in different countries. Drawing on the experience of four countries (US, Sweden, Japan and Brazil) with different institutional trajectories and degrees of academic entrepreneurial transformation, under varying degrees of state control and levels of university initiative, we argue that a global convergence is currently taking shape toward entrepreneurial universities playing a central role in a knowledge-based economy that moves beyond etatism and pure market relations to an intermediate position within a triple helix regime. The role of public venture capital in financing the transition to the entrepreneurial university and its possible interventions in a counter-cyclical business model, which is also active in periods of economic downturn, are also discussed.
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13.
  • Bergek, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Integrating the supply and demand sides of public support to new technology-based firms
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0302-3427. ; 42:4, s. 514-529
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper analyses public support and argues that supply does not match demand in terms of the support needs of different types of new technology-based firms (NTBFs). The demand side of public support to NTBFs is analysed by developing a typology of NTBFs, based on venture origin and degree of innovativeness. Each types characteristics, challenges and support needs are identified. The supply side is analysed in terms of the goals, instruments and level of aggregation of the two main policy areas that provide support for NTBFs: small and medium-sized enterprise policy and science, technology and innovation policy. Finally, the demand and supply sides are compared and three main shortcomings of existing public support to NTBFs are identified. This paper makes a twofold contribution: first, the typology gives guidelines for policy-makers with respect to the support needs of the NTBFs. Second, it identifies shortcomings in existing public support and recommends improvements.
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14.
  • Borrás, Susana, et al. (författare)
  • Competence building: A systemic approach to innovation policy
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 1471-5430.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The main question that guides this paper is how governments are focusing (and must focus) on competence building (education and training) when designing and implementing innovation policies. With this approach, the paper aims at filling the gap between the existing literature on competences on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other.With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly at the unresolved tensions and systemic unbalances related to competences in the system; and last but not least, it elaborates a set of overall criteria for the selection and design of relevant policy instruments addressing those tensions and unbalances.
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15.
  • Borrás, Susana, et al. (författare)
  • Education, training and skills in innovation policy
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 1471-5430. ; 42:2, s. 215-227
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The main question that guides this paper is how governments are focusing (and must focus) on competence building (education, training and skills) when designing and implementing innovation policies. After a brief literature review, this paper suggests a typology of internal/external and individual/organizational sources of competences that are related to innovation activities. This serves to examine briefly the most common initiatives that governments are taking in this regard. The paper identifies three overall deficiencies and imbalances in innovation systems in terms of education, training and skills: the insufficient levels of competences in a system, the time lag between firms’ short-term needs for specific competences and the long time required to develop them, and the imbalances between internal and external sources of competences in firms. From these, the paper elaborates a set of overall criteria for the (re)design of policy instruments addressing those tensions and imbalances.
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16.
  • Borras, Susana, et al. (författare)
  • Introduction to special issue on learning, innovation systems and policy in honour of Bengt-Ake Lundvall
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 1471-5430. ; 38:9, s. 666-668
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This special issue celebrates the work of Bengt-Ake Lundvall on his 70th birthday. In the 1980s and 1990s he was a key player among a small group of academics in the USA and Europe that developed a new, systemic approach to the study of the interactions between science, innovation, and policy. He contributed to the popularity of the approach in the policy community in several ways, among other things through his period as Deputy Director at the Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry at the OECD between 1992 and 1995, and through his later work for the European Commission, as evidenced among other things by the highly influential booklet, The Globalising Learning Economy: Implications for Innovation Policy. His strong emphasis on learning, a hallmark of Lundvall's approach, is also evident in much of his recent work. This issue has six papers written by some of his collaborators.
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17.
  • Braunerhjelm, Pontus, 1953- (författare)
  • Academic Entrepreneurship : Social norms, university culture and policies
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427. ; 34:9, s. 619-631
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Is a shift in intellectual property rights to universities the key instrument in increasing commercialization of publicly funded research? How much can actually be learned from the US system, disregarding the ongoing debate as to whether the USA do actually outperform Europe in terms of commercializing university-based research? Taking Sweden as a role model, the article claims that this policy will not work, from the analysis of a unique database giving individual university researchers' views on participation in commercialization of public research, their commercialization experiences, and the obstacles researchers say exist to increase academic entrepreneurship. Despite researchers' positive attitudes towards engaging in commercial activities, the university culture, weak incentive structures and badly managed support facilities impede the creation of efficient links to markets. Measures must be taken at primarily the national level, but also at the university level, to enhance commercialization activities
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18.
  • Broström, Anders (författare)
  • Interaction with science : In what sense a case of learning by doing?
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427. ; 41:2, s. 141-150
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Since the contribution of Cohen et al. (Management Science, 2002, 48: 1-23), it is well established that linkages between engineering firms and public research organisations serve to both suggest new R&D projects and comple existing projects. However, the literature has little to say about whether these two types of outcomes are linked or independent effects. Drawing on theories of organisational learning and empirical analysis of data on Swedish engineering firms, this paper establishes that the occurrence of useful impulses to further R& D is inherently linked to the achievement of objectives related to a firm's ongoing R& D projects. This connection is, however, mediated by the character of the project objective. Compared to linkages where objectives of exploration and exploitation are balanced, the connection between serendipitous learning and the achievement of established R& D objectives is stronger when these objectives are oriented towards exploration and weaker when objectives are oriented towards exploitation.
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19.
  • Bugge, Markus M., et al. (författare)
  • Governing socio-technical change : Orchestrating demand for assisted living in ageing societies
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 0302-3427. ; 45:4, s. 468-479
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in innovation studies towards grand challenges, and in how demand-side policy instruments can supplement traditional supply-side policy measures. To contribute to an improved understanding of how demand-side policy requires new governance responses, this article presents a case study of trialling assisted living technologies to address the grand challenge of demographic ageing. The article departs from an innovation policy framework that incorporates theorising on transformational system failures, governance modes, and policy mixes. This framework serves as an entry point to explore how different modes of governance condition the ways in which demand for assisted living in healthcare is orchestrated across multiple stakeholders. The case study is embedded in a wider system shift from a reactive to a proactive system of healthcare provision, enabling the elderly to live independently at home longer and thus avoiding or postponing institutionalised care.
20.
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  • Resultat 11-20 av 71
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