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Sökning: L773:0302 3427 OR L773:1471 5430

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61.
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62.
  • Schmoch, Ulrich, et al. (författare)
  • When and how to use bibliometrics as a screening tool for research performance
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 0302-3427. ; 36:10, s. 753-762
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Scientific performance is often evaluated by bibliometric indicators such as publication counts or citations. But this may neglect other relevant outputs from research units. An optimal evaluation would measure each dimension separately, but this would be costly. Luckily, cluster analyses show that units which specialise in other types of research activities (such as knowledge transfer or education of doctoral students), do not completely ignore publication-related activities. Publication-related outputs can also be disaggregated into quality (measured by citations) and quantity (measured by counts) dimensions. Thus, the performance of research groups can be screened using the Integral Citation (a new bibliometric indicator) which combines the quality and quantity dimensions. Units at the extremes need to be studied in more detail, to avoid measurement biases.
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63.
  • Schwaag-Serger, Sylvia, et al. (författare)
  • Chinese university governance: Tensions and reforms
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 1471-5430. ; 42:6, s. 871-886
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chinese universities have undergone a massive transformation in recent decades. In addition to a dramatic increase in the number of universities and students, universities have shifted from primarily providing education to emphasizing research. Omnipresent political control is to be replaced by stronger academic self-organization. The result so far is a growing stratification of Chinese universities, with a few select research universities receiving the bulk of government research funding and a large number of universities with very little public funding for research which focus primarily on education. The rapidly changing landscape, with growing numbers but also increasing stratification and with conflicting relations between political control and self-organization, has given rise to tensions within universities and within the higher education system. In this paper, we identify these tensions and discuss their implications for China’s quest to establish world-class universities and to achieve the transition to an innovation-oriented nation. Key words
64.
  • Shibayama, Sotaro, et al. (författare)
  • Sharing research tools in academia : the case of Japan
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 0302-3427. ; 38:8, s. 649-659
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study examines the sharing of research tools among academic scientists in the life sciences and materials sciences in Japan. First, this study investigates material transfer, or the sharing of research tools, based on individual-level negotiation. Statistical analyses suggest that supplier-side scientists decide whether or not to fulfill requests for material transfer on the basis of: expected return from consumer- side scientists (e.g., co-authorship), previous collaborative relationships, and the likelihood of scientific competition. Although studies in the US have indicated that the trend of academic capitalism or commercialization deters material transfer, our results show limited negative impact in this regard. Second, this study examines the use of central repositories of research tools as a means to the wider dissemination of such tools. The results suggest that entrepreneurial scientists and scientists in public research organizations are more willing to provide their research tools through this publicly accessible system.
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65.
  • Timmermans, Bram, et al. (författare)
  • Coordinated unbundling: A way to stimulate entrepreneurship through public procurement for innovation
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 1471-5430. ; 40:5, s. 674-685
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Public procurement for innovation is a matter of using public demand to trigger innovation. Empirical studies have demonstrated that demand-based policy instruments can be considered to be a powerful tool in stimulating innovative processes among existing firms. However, the existing literature has not focused on the role this policy instrument can play in the promotion of (knowledge-intensive) entrepreneurship. This paper investigates this link in more detail and introduces the concept of coordinated unbundling as a strategy that can facilitate this purpose. We also present a framework for organising public procurement for innovation around this unbundling strategy and provide a set of challenges that need to be addressed.
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66.
  • Trencher, G., et al. (författare)
  • Beyond the Third Mission: Exploring the Emerging University Function of Co-creation for Sustainability
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 1471-5430. ; 41:2, s. 151-179
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper explores a global trend where universities are collaborating with local government, industry and civic organisations to advance the sustainable transformation of a specific town, city or region. With empirical evidence, we argue that this function of ‘cocreation for sustainability’ could be interpreted as the seeds of an emerging, new mission for the university. We demonstrate that this still evolving mission differs significantly to the economic focus of the third mission and conventional technology transfer practices, which we argue, should be critically examined. After defining five channels through which a university can fulfil the emerging mission, we analyse two frontrunner ‘transformative institutions’ engaged in co-creating social transformations in pursuit of materialising sustainable development in specific locations and regions. This study seeks to add to the debate on the third mission and triple-helix partnerships. It does so by incorporating sustainable development and place-based co-creation with government, industry and civil society.
67.
  • Vico, Eugenia Perez, et al. (författare)
  • An in-depth study of direct and indirect impacts from the research of a physics professor
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 1471-5430. ; 41, s. 701-719
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Some policymakers believe that academic R&D generates insufficient economic benefits. However, they often exclude the long-term and multi-dimensional impacts that are mediated through the activities of companies, students or policymakers. This case study, which is mainly interview-based, traces and characterises such impacts applying the technological innovation systems approach to the case of a physics professor. Multi-dimensional impacts are revealed in the areas of catalysis, biomaterials and research policy. Impacts on the development, social capital and search processes are continuous and cumulative, while impacts on resource mobilisation and legitimation follow upon these. Entrepreneurial experimentation and market formation are impacted in later stages, sometimes with decade-long time lags. The impact is often subtle, deeply intertwined with the action of others, and it unfolds in sequences of impact. Implications are drawn for research policy, emphasising the importance of accounting for indirect impacts in order to understand the full effect of academic R&D.
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68.
  • Wesseling, Joeri H., et al. (författare)
  • Public procurement for innovation to help meet societal challenges : A review and case study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 0302-3427. ; 45:4, s. 493-502
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Public procurement for innovation (PPI) is a powerful, underutilized demand-side innovation policy instrument. How this instrument can contribute to meeting societal challenges, which require goaloriented transformation of socio-technical systems, remains unclear and is explored in this article. This article draws on the transitions and PPI literature to propose transformative processes to which PPI can contribute and identifies factors that determine the effectiveness of PPI in meeting societal challenges. The propositions are explored with a case study on the procurement of radically new flood barrier technology, using event history mapping analysis. The article concludes that, under certain conditions, PPI can contribute to the transformative processes of (1) the articulation of societal demands to direct challenge-driven transformation; (2) the development and production; (3) selection; and (4) the diffusion and use of new technologies to meet these societal demands. The article ends with policy recommendations on how PPI can help meet societal challenges.
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69.
  • Wigren-Kristoferson, Caroline, et al. (författare)
  • Mind the gap and bridge the gap: research excellence and diffusion of academic knowledge in Sweden
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - Oxford University Press. - 1471-5430. ; 38:6, s. 481-492
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper aims to highlight the changing and diversifying nature of academic work related to various forms of knowledge production and diffusion. Focusing on the changing research policy landscape in Sweden, three interrelated questions are investigated: what academics do in terms of commercialisation and public dissemination; how they perform these activities; and why they engage in these activities. Based on data from a recent survey with over 10,000 academics in Sweden, we identify and analyse 'high-performing' researchers, in the context of the commercialisation and public dissemination of their academic work. The quantitative analysis is supplemented by qualitative interviews with scientists at strong research environments in Sweden. We argue that there is a virtuous cycle connecting different academic activities in strong research environments research excellence and excellence in knowledge production on one hand, and knowledge diffusion activities, such as commercialisation and public dissemination, on the other hand.
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70.
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