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51.
  • Figueiredo, Margarida L. A., et al. (författare)
  • Non-coding roX RNAs prevent the binding of the MSL-complex to heterochromatic regions
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 10:12, s. e1004865-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Long non-coding RNAs contribute to dosage compensation in both mammals and Drosophila by inducing changes in the chromatin structure of the X-chromosome. In Drosophila melanogaster, roX1 and roX2 are long non-coding RNAs that together with proteins form the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex, which coats the entire male X-chromosome and mediates dosage compensation by increasing its transcriptional output. Studies on polytene chromosomes have demonstrated that when both roX1 and roX2 are absent, the MSL-complex becomes less abundant on the male X-chromosome and is relocated to the chromocenter and the 4thchromosome. Here we address the role of roX RNAs in MSL-complex targeting and the evolution of dosage compensation in Drosophila. We performed ChIP-seq experiments which showed that MSL-complex recruitment to high affinity sites (HAS) on the X-chromosome is independent of roX and that the HAS sequence motif is conserved in D. simulans. Additionally, a complete and enzymatically active MSL-complex is recruited to six specific genes on the 4thchromosome. Interestingly, our sequence analysis showed that in the absence of roX RNAs, the MSL-complex has an affinity for regions enriched in Hoppel transposable elements and repeats in general. We hypothesize that roX mutants reveal the ancient targeting of the MSL-complex and propose that the role of roX RNAs is to prevent the binding of the MSL-complex to heterochromatin.
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52.
  • Flores-Sandoval, Eduardo, et al. (författare)
  • A simple auxin transcriptional response system regulates multiple morphogenetic processes in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLOS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 11:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In land plants comparative genomics has revealed that members of basal lineages share a common set of transcription factors with the derived flowering plants, despite sharing few homologous structures. The plant hormone auxin has been implicated in many facets of development in both basal and derived lineages of land plants. We functionally characterized the auxin transcriptional response machinery in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, a member of the basal lineage of extant land plants. All components known from flowering plant systems are present in M. polymorpha, but they exist as single orthologs: a singleMpTOPLESS (TPL) corepressor, a single MpTRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1 auxin receptor, single orthologs of each class of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF; MpARF1,MpARF2, MpARF3), and a single negative regulator AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (MpIAA). Phylogenetic analyses suggest this simple system is the ancestral condition for land plants. We experimentally demonstrate that these genes act in an auxin response pathway — chimeric fusions of the MpTPL corepressor with heterodimerization domains of MpARF1, MpARF2, or their negative regulator, MpIAA, generate auxin insensitive plants that lack the capacity to pattern and transition into mature stages of development. Our results indicate auxin mediated transcriptional regulation acts as a facilitator of branching, differentiation and growth, rather than acting to determine or specify tissues during the haploid stage of the M.polymorpha life cycle. We hypothesize that the ancestral role of auxin is to modulate a balance of differentiated and pluri- or totipotent cell states, whose fates are determined by interactions with combinations of unrelated transcription factors.
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53.
  • Folkersen, Lasse, et al. (författare)
  • Mapping of 79 loci for 83 plasma protein biomarkers in cardiovascular disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 13:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent advances in highly multiplexed immunoassays have allowed systematic large-scale measurement of hundreds of plasma proteins in large cohort studies. In combination with genotyping, such studies offer the prospect to 1) identify mechanisms involved with regulation of protein expression in plasma, and 2) determine whether the plasma proteins are likely to be causally implicated in disease. We report here the results of genome-wide association (GWA) studies of 83 proteins considered relevant to cardiovascular disease (CVD), measured in 3,394 individuals with multiple CVD risk factors. We identified 79 genome-wide significant (p<5e-8) association signals, 55 of which replicated at P<0.0007 in separate validation studies (n = 2,639 individuals). Using automated text mining, manual curation, and network-based methods incorporating information on expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), we propose plausible causal mechanisms for 25 trans-acting loci, including a potential post-translational regulation of stem cell factor by matrix metalloproteinase 9 and receptor-ligand pairs such as RANK-RANK ligand. Using public GWA study data, we further evaluate all 79 loci for their causal effect on coronary artery disease, and highlight several potentially causal associations. Overall, a majority of the plasma proteins studied showed evidence of regulation at the genetic level. Our results enable future studies of the causal architecture of human disease, which in turn should aid discovery of new drug targets.
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54.
  • Forsberg, Simon K G, et al. (författare)
  • The Multi-allelic Genetic Architecture of a Variance-Heterogeneity Locus for Molybdenum Concentration in Leaves Acts as a Source of Unexplained Additive Genetic Variance.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 11:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association (GWA) analyses have generally been used to detect individual loci contributing to the phenotypic diversity in a population by the effects of these loci on the trait mean. More rarely, loci have also been detected based on variance differences between genotypes. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the possible genetic mechanisms leading to such variance signals. However, little is known about what causes these signals, or whether this genetic variance-heterogeneity reflects mechanisms of importance in natural populations. Previously, we identified a variance-heterogeneity GWA (vGWA) signal for leaf molybdenum concentrations in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, fine-mapping of this association reveals that the vGWA emerges from the effects of three independent genetic polymorphisms that all are in strong LD with the markers displaying the genetic variance-heterogeneity. By revealing the genetic architecture underlying this vGWA signal, we uncovered the molecular source of a significant amount of hidden additive genetic variation or "missing heritability". Two of the three polymorphisms underlying the genetic variance-heterogeneity are promoter variants for Molybdate transporter 1 (MOT1), and the third a variant located ~25 kb downstream of this gene. A fourth independent association was also detected ~600 kb upstream of MOT1. Use of a T-DNA knockout allele highlights Copper Transporter 6; COPT6 (AT2G26975) as a strong candidate gene for this association. Our results show that an extended LD across a complex locus including multiple functional alleles can lead to a variance-heterogeneity between genotypes in natural populations. Further, they provide novel insights into the genetic regulation of ion homeostasis in A. thaliana, and empirically confirm that variance-heterogeneity based GWA methods are a valuable tool to detect novel associations of biological importance in natural populations.
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55.
  • Forslund, Josefin M. E., et al. (författare)
  • The presence of rNTPs decreases the speed of mitochondrial DNA replication
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public library science. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 14:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ribonucleotides (rNMPs) are frequently incorporated during replication or repair by DNA polymerases and failure to remove them leads to instability of nuclear DNA (nDNA). Conversely, rNMPs appear to be relatively well-tolerated in mitochondnal DNA (mtDNA), although the mechanisms behind the tolerance remain unclear. We here show that the human mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (Pol gamma) bypasses single rNMPs with an unprecedentedly high fidelity and efficiency. In addition, Pol gamma exhibits a strikingly low frequency of rNMP incorporation, a property, which we find is independent of its exonuclease activity. However, the physiological levels of free rNTPs partially inhibit DNA synthesis by Pol gamma and render the polymerase more sensitive to imbalanced dNTP pools. The characteristics of Pol gamma reported here could have implications for forms of rntDNA depletion syndrome (MDS) that are associated with imbalanced cellular dNTP pools. Our results show that at the rNTPidNIP ratios that are expected to prevail in such disease states, Pol gamma enters a polymerasetexonuclease idling mode that leads to mtDNA replication stalling. This could ultimately lead to mtDNA depletion and, consequently, to mitochondrial disease phenotypes such as those observed in MDS.
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56.
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57.
  • Fredriksson, Nils J, et al. (författare)
  • Recurrent promoter mutations in melanoma are defined by an extended context-specific mutational signature
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Plos Genetics. - : Public Library of Science. - 1553-7404 .- 1553-7390. ; 13:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sequencing of whole tumor genomes holds the promise of revealing functional somatic regulatory mutations, such as those described in the TERT promoter. Recurrent promoter mutations have been identified in many additional genes and appear to be particularly common in melanoma, but convincing functional data such as influence on gene expression has been more elusive. Here, we show that frequently recurring promoter mutations in melanoma occur almost exclusively at cytosines flanked by a distinct sequence signature, TTCCG, with TERT as a notable exception. In active, but not inactive, promoters, mutation frequencies for cytosines at the 5' end of this ETS-like motif were considerably higher than expected based on a UV trinucleotide mutational signature. Additional analyses solidify this pattern as an extended context-specific mutational signature that mediates an exceptional position-specific vulnerability to UV mutagenesis, arguing against positive selection. We further use ultra-sensitive amplicon sequencing to demonstrate that cell cultures exposed to UV light quickly develop subclonal mutations specifically in affected positions. Our findings have implications for the interpretation of somatic mutations in regulatory regions, and underscore the importance of genomic context and extended sequence patterns to accurately describe mutational signatures in cancer.
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58.
  • Fredriksson, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • The polyamine transporter Slc18b1(VPAT) is important for both short and long time memory and for regulation of polyamine content in the brain.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 15:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • SLC18B1 is a sister gene to the vesicular monoamine and acetylcholine transporters, and the only known polyamine transporter, with unknown physiological role. We reveal that Slc18b1 knock out mice has significantly reduced polyamine content in the brain providing the first evidence that Slc18b1 is functionally required for regulating polyamine levels. We found that this mouse has impaired short and long term memory in novel object recognition, radial arm maze and self-administration paradigms. We also show that Slc18b1 KO mice have altered expression of genes involved in Long Term Potentiation, plasticity, calcium signalling and synaptic functions and that expression of components of GABA and glutamate signalling are changed. We further observe a partial resistance to diazepam, manifested as significantly lowered reduction in locomotion after diazepam treatment. We suggest that removal of Slc18b1 leads to reduction of polyamine contents in neurons, resulting in reduced GABA signalling due to long-term reduction in glutamatergic signalling.
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59.
  • Friberg, Urban, 1972-, et al. (författare)
  • Sexually Antagonistic “Zygotic Drive” of the Sex Chromosomes
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: PLOS Genetics. - : PLOS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 4:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genomic conflict is perplexing because it causes the fitness of a species to decline rather than improve. Many diverse forms of genomic conflict have been identified, but this extant tally may be incomplete. Here, we show that the unusual characteristics of the sex chromosomes can, in principle, lead to a previously unappreciated form of sexual genomic conflict. The phenomenon occurs because there is selection in the heterogametic sex for sex-linked mutations that harm the sex of offspring that does not carry them, whenever there is competition among siblings. This harmful phenotype can be expressed as an antagonistic green-beard effect that is mediated by epigenetic parental effects, parental investment, and/or interactions among siblings. We call this form of genomic conflict sexually antagonistic “zygotic drive”, because it is functionally equivalent to meiotic drive, except that it operates during the zygotic and postzygotic stages of the life cycle rather than the meiotic and gametic stages. A combination of mathematical modeling and a survey of empirical studies is used to show that sexually antagonistic zygotic drive is feasible, likely to be widespread in nature, and that it can promote a genetic “arms race” between the homo- and heteromorphic sex chromosomes. This new category of genomic conflict has the potential to strongly influence other fundamental evolutionary processes, such as speciation and the degeneration of the Y and W sex chromosomes. It also fosters a new genetic hypothesis for the evolution of enigmatic fitness-reducing traits like the high frequency of spontaneous abortion, sterility, and homosexuality observed in humans.
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60.
  • Frith, Martin C., et al. (författare)
  • Pseudo-messenger RNA : Phantoms of the transcriptome
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 2:4, s. 504-514
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The mammalian transcriptome harbours shadowy entities that resist classification and analysis. In analogy with pseudogenes, we define pseudo-messenger RNA to be RNA molecules that resemble protein- coding mRNA, but cannot encode full-length proteins owing to disruptions of the reading frame. Using a rigorous computational pipeline, which rules out sequencing errors, we identify 10,679 pseudo - messenger RNAs ( approximately half of which are transposonassociated) among the 102,801 FANTOM3 mouse cDNAs: just over 10% of the FANTOM3 transcriptome. These comprise not only transcribed pseudogenes, but also disrupted splice variants of otherwise protein- coding genes. Some may encode truncated proteins, only a minority of which appear subject to nonsense- mediated decay. The presence of an excess of transcripts whose only disruptions are opal stop codons suggests that there are more selenoproteins than currently estimated. We also describe compensatory frameshifts, where a segment of the gene has changed frame but remains translatable. In summary, we survey a large class of non- standard but potentially functional transcripts that are likely to encode genetic information and effect biological processes in novel ways. Many of these transcripts do not correspond cleanly to any identifiable object in the genome, implying fundamental limits to the goal of annotating all functional elements at the genome sequence level.
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