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61.
  • Agardh, Anette, et al. (författare)
  • Health Risks in Same-Sex Attracted Ugandan University Students: Evidence from Two Cross-Sectional Studies
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 11:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Widespread discrimination across much of sub-Saharan Africa against persons with same-sex sexuality, including recent attempts in Uganda to extend criminal sanctions against same-sex behavior, are likely to have profound effects on this group’s health, health care access, and well-being. Yet knowledge of the prevalence of same-sex sexuality in this region is scarce. This study aimed to systematically examine prevalence of same-sex sexuality and related health risks in young Ugandan adults. We conducted two cross-sectional survey studies in south-western Uganda targeting student samples (n = 980, n = 1954) representing 80% and 72% of the entire undergraduate classes attending a university in 2005 and 2010, respectively. A questionnaire assessed items concerning same-sex sexuality (same-sex attraction/fantasies, same-sex sexual relations), mental health, substance use, experience of violence, risky sexual behavior, and sexual health counseling needs. Our findings showed that same-sex sexual attraction/fantasies and behavior were common among male and female students, with 10–25% reporting having sexual attraction/fantasies regarding persons of the same-sex, and 6–16% reporting same-sex sexual relations. Experiences of same-sex sexuality were associated with health risks, e.g. poor mental health (2010, AOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0–2.3), sexual coercion (2010, AOR 2.9; CI: 1.9–4.6), and unmet sexual health counseling needs (2010, AOR 2.2; CI: 1.4–3.3). This first study of young adults in Uganda with same-sex sexuality found high levels of health needs but poor access to health care. Effective response is likely to require major shifts in current policy, efforts to reduce stigmatization, and reorientation of health services to better meet the needs of this vulnerable group of young people.
62.
  • Agardh, Anette, et al. (författare)
  • The Impact of Socio-Demographic and Religious Factors upon Sexual Behavior among Ugandan University Students.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 6:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: More knowledge is needed about structural factors in society that affect risky sexual behaviors. Educational institutions such as universities provide an opportune arena for interventions among young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between sociodemographic and religious factors and their impact on sexual behavior among university students in Uganda. METHODS: In 2005, 980 university students (response rate 80%) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Validated instruments were used to assess socio-demographic and religious factors and sexual behavior. Logistic regression analyses were applied. RESULTS: Our findings indicated that 37% of the male and 49% of the female students had not previously had sex. Of those with sexual experience, 46% of the males and 23% of the females had had three or more sexual partners, and 32% of the males and 38% of the females did not consistently use condoms. For those who rated religion as less important in their family, the probability of early sexual activity and having had a high number of lifetime partners increased by a statistically significant amount (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.4 and OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.3, respectively). However, the role of religion seemed to have no impact on condom use. Being of Protestant faith interacted with gender: among those who had debuted sexually, Protestant female students were more likely to have had three or more lifetime partners; the opposite was true for Protestant male students. CONCLUSION: Religion emerged as an important determinant of sexual behavior among Ugandan university students. Our findings correlate with the increasing number of conservative religious injunctions against premarital sex directed at young people in many countries with a high burden. of HIV/AIDS. Such influence of religion must be taken into account in order to gain a deeper understanding of the forces that shape sexual behavior in Uganda.
63.
64.
  • Agebratt, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • A Randomized Study of the Effects of Additional Fruit and Nuts Consumption on Hepatic Fat Content, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Basal Metabolic Rate
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 11:1, s. e0147149
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundFruit has since long been advocated as a healthy source of many nutrients, however, the high content of sugars in fruit might be a concern.ObjectivesTo study effects of an increased fruit intake compared with similar amount of extra calories from nuts in humans.MethodsThirty healthy non-obese participants were randomized to either supplement the diet with fruits or nuts, each at +7 kcal/kg bodyweight/day for two months. Major endpoints were change of hepatic fat content (HFC, by magnetic resonance imaging, MRI), basal metabolic rate (BMR, with indirect calorimetry) and cardiovascular risk markers.ResultsWeight gain was numerically similar in both groups although only statistically significant in the group randomized to nuts (fruit: from 22.15±1.61 kg/m2 to 22.30±1.7 kg/m2, p = 0.24 nuts: from 22.54±2.26 kg/m2 to 22.73±2.28 kg/m2, p = 0.045). On the other hand BMR increased in the nut group only (p = 0.028). Only the nut group reported a net increase of calories (from 2519±721 kcal/day to 2763±595 kcal/day, p = 0.035) according to 3-day food registrations. Despite an almost three-fold reported increased fructose-intake in the fruit group (from 9.1±6.0 gram/day to 25.6±9.6 gram/day, p<0.0001, nuts: from 12.4±5.7 gram/day to 6.5±5.3 gram/day, p = 0.007) there was no change of HFC. The numerical increase in fasting insulin was statistical significant only in the fruit group (from 7.73±3.1 pmol/l to 8.81±2.9 pmol/l, p = 0.018, nuts: from 7.29±2.9 pmol/l to 8.62±3.0 pmol/l, p = 0.14). Levels of vitamin C increased in both groups while α-tocopherol/cholesterol-ratio increased only in the fruit group.ConclusionsAlthough BMR increased in the nut-group only this was not linked with differences in weight gain between groups which potentially could be explained by the lack of reported net caloric increase in the fruit group. In healthy non-obese individuals an increased fruit intake seems safe from cardiovascular risk perspective, including measurement of HFC by MRI.
65.
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66.
  • Agnarsdóttir, Margrét, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Expression of CMV protein pp65 in cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 14:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human cytomegalovirus (CVM) has been detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in brain tumours; however, whether CMV antigen is seen in melanomas has not yet been elucidated. Applying IHC, melanoma tissue was assessed for the expression of pp65, a tegument protein of CMV. Two cohorts were available, cohort-I and II, the latter included also related metastasis. In addition to IHC, in situ hybridisation (ISH) was carried out to assess whether CMV related genetic sequences were detectable in a subset of cases. Seventy per cent of the 142 cases in cohort-I and 50% of the 37 cases in cohort-II displayed immunoreactivity (IR). In both cohorts, the IHC outcome correlated with T-stage (Cohort I: Spearman 0.22, p = 0.01, Cohort II: Fisher exact text 0.04). In 30 of cohort-II cases, when IHC staining was carried out on both the primary tumour and the corresponding metastasis, no change in IR was noted in 53%; in 20%, the IR was lower and in 27% higher in the metastasis when compared with the primary tumour. These results were significant (Fisher exact test 0.03). Applying ISH technique on four tumour cases with detectable pp65 protein, CMV related genetic sequence was not detected. Here, we demonstrate, congruent with observations published for brain tumours, that the protein pp65 is indeed observed in substantial number of melanoma cases with IHC; however, no signal was detected with ISH technique. These findings are in line with previously reported studies, demonstrating that the role of CMV in tumours is still debatable.
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70.
  • Agnvall, Beatrix, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of Divergent Selection for Fear of Humans on Behaviour in Red Junglefowl
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - PLOS. - 1932-6203. ; 11:11, s. 1-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Domestication has caused a range of similar phenotypic changes across taxa, relating to physiology, morphology and behaviour. It has been suggested that this recurring domesticated phenotype may be a result of correlated responses to a central trait, namely increased tameness. We selected Red Junglefowl, the ancestors of domesticated chickens, during five generations for reduced fear of humans. This caused a marked and significant response in tameness, and previous studies have found correlated effects on growth, metabolism, reproduction, and some behaviour not directly selected for. Here, we report the results from a series of behavioural tests carried out on the initial parental generation (P0) and the fifth selected generation (S5), focusing on behaviour not functionally related to tameness, in order to study any correlated effects. Birds were tested for fear of humans, social reinstatement tendency, open field behaviour at two different ages, foraging/exploration, response to a simulated aerial predator attack and tonic immobility. In S5, there were no effects of selection on foraging/exploration or tonic immobility, while in the social reinstatement and open field tests there were significant interactions between selection and sex. In the aerial predator test, there were significant main effects of selection, indicating that fear of humans may represent a general wariness towards predators. In conclusion, we found only small correlated effects on behaviours not related to the tameness trait selected for, in spite of them showing high genetic correlations to fear of humans in a previous study on the same population. This suggests that species-specific behaviour is generally resilient to changes during domestication.
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