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  • Abalo, Ernesto, et al. (författare)
  • Emerging Patterns of Inclusion and Exclusion in the Era of E-government : A Study of Users of ‘Swedish Public Employment Service’ on the Internet
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Media and Global Divides : abstracts: IAMCR World Congress, Stockholm 20-25 July 2008. - Stockholm : Organizing Committee for the IAMCR Congress 2008. - 91-88354-30-X ; s. 44-45
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In the area of governmental information for and services to citizens digitalization has certainly become a buzzword. Framed within the discourses on e-government or e-governance – or differ­ent mixtures of the two – various analyses have tried to point out, or even anticipate possible consequences of the appropriation of digital technologies, mainly the internet, in governmental services.</p><p>On the one hand, these analyses have pointed out a great deal of opportunities connected to the incorporation of the internet into governmental information and services. Policy makers have been quick to point to the increased accessibility as a great opportunity for the citizens; in Sweden this vision of accessibility has even been referred to as ‘24:7-governmental agencies’. Academics, among others, have also suggested that the digitalization of information and services opens up new possibilities for citizen control of governments.</p><p>On the other hand, a number of problems have also been identified. For instance, the digitalization of public registers holding personal information has been interpreted as a threat to the citizens’ integrity: Will digitalization bring a new surveillance society? The most frequently debated prob­lem, however, at least within research, has been the fear of digital divides. Will the internet create digital cleavages between different groups of citizens?</p><p>So far, however, neither the hopeful nor the dystopian analyses have made enough efforts to critically evaluate their claims. Such evaluations can start from different points of departure, and in this paper the starting point is the citizens as users of governmental information and services through the internet: What patterns of inclusion and exclusion emerge as a governmental agency digitalizes its information and services by making them increasingly internet based?</p><p>The paper presents statistical data from a survey of 762 unemployed citizens using the Swedish Public Employment Service, a governmental agency that has come to rely specifically heavy on internet based information and service. The initial analysis of data reveals interesting differences between social groups in terms of both perception and use of the internet – in general – and the resources offered by SPES in particular. For instance, the users’ various degrees of education is a strong, determining factor when it comes to use of internet SPES’ services.</p><p>The paper starts from a conceptual elaboration of various notions of e-government and e-gov­ernance. Thereafter, the survey data is described and elaborated on before moving into a discus­sion of the wider significance of the findings: What does data suggest in terms of patterns of in­clusion in and exclusion from a society in which governmental agencies, to an increasing extent, use the internet for their information and services?</p>
  • Abbas, Taimoor, et al. (författare)
  • A Measurement Based Shadow Fading Model for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Network Simulations
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Antennas and Propagation. - Hindawi Publishing Corporation. - 1687-5869 .- 1687-5877.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) propagation channel has significant implications on the design and performance of novel communication protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Extensive research efforts have been made to develop V2V channel models to be implemented in advanced VANET system simulators for performance evaluation. The impact of shadowing caused by other vehicles has, however, largely been neglected in most of the models, as well as in the system simulations. In this paper we present a shadow fading model targeting system simulations based on real measurements performed in urban and highway scenarios. The measurement data is separated into three categories, line-of-sight (LOS), obstructed line-of-sight (OLOS) by vehicles, and non-line-of-sight due to buildings, with the help of video information recorded during the measurements. It is observed that vehicles obstructing the LOS induce an additional average attenuation of about 10 dB in the received signal power. An approach to incorporate the LOS/OLOS model into existing VANET simulators is also provided. Finally, system level VANET simulation results are presented, showing the difference between the LOS/OLOS model and a channel model based on Nakagami-m fading.</p>
  • Abiri, Najmeh, et al. (författare)
  • Establishing strong imputation performance of a denoising autoencoder in a wide range of missing data problems
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Neurocomputing. - Amsterdam : Elsevier. - 0925-2312 .- 1872-8286. ; 65, s. 137-146
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Dealing with missing data in data analysis is inevitable. Although powerful imputation methods that address this problem exist, there is still much room for improvement. In this study, we examined single imputation based on deep autoencoders, motivated by the apparent success of deep learning to efficiently extract useful dataset features. We have developed a consistent framework for both training and imputation. Moreover, we benchmarked the results against state-of-the-art imputation methods on different data sizes and characteristics. The work was not limited to the one-type variable dataset; we also imputed missing data with multi-type variables, e.g., a combination of binary, categorical, and continuous attributes. To evaluate the imputation methods, we randomly corrupted the complete data, with varying degrees of corruption, and then compared the imputed and original values. In all experiments, the developed autoencoder obtained the smallest error for all ranges of initial data corruption. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.</p>
  • Abrahamsson, Cristian, et al. (författare)
  • En Delfistudie om lärares uppfattning av elevengagemang i NO-undervisningen
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Research School Communicate Science in School. - Oslo : Naturfagsenteret / Norwegian Centre for Science Education.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>What happens in a science classroom where students are engaged and how do teachers observe and interpret student engagement? This article highlights teachers’ perspective on students’ engagement in science education and to what extent it is connected to the scientific content. This approach complements earlier research which focuses mostly on students’ attitude towards science education and their interest in various topics in science.</p><p>The findings are based on a three-stage Delphi survey distributed to 39 expert science teachers. The results shows science education with a range of different perspectives and that most teachers do not perceive any direct connection between specific science topics and the students’ engagement. The survey also shows that teachers to a high level interpret students’ emotional expressions and academic behavior as engagement rather than their cognitive behavior.</p>
  • Abrahamsson, Kajsa H., et al. (författare)
  • Patients' Views on Periodontal Disease; Attitudes to Oral Health and Expectancy of Periodontal Treatment : A Qualitative Interview Study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry. - New Malden, Surry : Quintessence Publishing Co. Ltd.. - 1602-1622 .- 1757-9996. ; 6:3, s. 209-216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Purpose:</strong></p><p>The aim of the study was to explore and gain an understanding of patients' views on their periodontal conditions, their perceived impact of periodontitis on daily life, as well as their attitudes to oral health and expectations of treatment.</p><p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong></p><p>The study subjects were patients with chronic periodontitis, who had been referred to a specialist clinic. The constant comparative method for grounded theory was used to collect and analyse the data. Audiotaped, open-ended interviews were conducted after periodontal examination, but before treatment. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and consecutively analysed in hierarchical coding processes and continued until saturation was reached (n = 17). In the analysis, a conceptual model that outlined the steps involved in the diagnosis of periodontitis was generated. The core concept of the model, keeping up appearance and self-esteem, was related to the following four additional categories and their dimensions; doing what you have to do trying to live up to the norm, suddenly having a shameful and disabling disease, feeling deserted and in the hands of an authority, and investing all in a treatment with an unpredictable outcome.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong></p><p>The results illustrated that subjects diagnosed with chronic periodontitis felt ashamed and were willing to invest all they had in terms of time, effort and financial resources to become healthy and to maintain their self-esteem. However, they perceived a low degree of control over treatment decisions and treatment outcome.</p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong></p><p>The results demonstrate the vulnerability of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and emphasise the importance of communication in dentistry.</p>
  • Aceto, Luca, et al. (författare)
  • A rule format for unit elements
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: SOFSEM 2010 : Theory and Practice of Computer Science: Proceedings. - Berlin : Springer Berlin/Heidelberg. - 978-3-642-11265-2 - 978-3-642-11266-9 ; s. 141-152
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This paper offers a meta-theorem for languages with a Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) in the style of Plotkin. Namely, it proposes a generic rule format for SOS guaranteeing that certain constants act as left- or right-unit elements for a set of binary operators. We show the generality of our format by applying it to a wide range of operators from the literature on process calculi.</p>
  • Aceto, Luca, et al. (författare)
  • A Rule Format for Unit Elements
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The Equational Logic of Parallel Processes. - Eindhoven : Eindhoven University of Technology.
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This paper offers a meta-theorem for languages with a Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) in the style of Plotkin. Namely, it proposes a generic rule format for SOS guaranteeing that certain constants act as left- or right-unit elements for a set of binary operators. We show the generality of our format by applying it to a wide range of operators from the literature on process calculi.</p>
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