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  • Åsenlöf, Pernilla, et al. (författare)
  • Step-Up : An Innovative Stepped-Care Protocol for Tailored Behavioral Medicine Treatment in the Management of Musculoskeletal Pain in Primary Care
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - London : BMJ Books. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. ; 72:Suppl. 3, s. A120-A120
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background:</strong> Multimodal rehabilitation and tailored behavioral medicine treatments should be provided to patients suffering from persistent and activity limiting pain according to current state-of-science. There is also evidence that a minimal intervention including 'stay-active advice' can produce effects comparable to effects of comprehensive treatment packages. Nevertheless, there is a gap of knowledge regarding which individuals who benefit the most from which modalities of pain treatment, at what time point, and with the highest cost-effectiveness. Accordingly, we have set up an innovative stepped-care protocol for the management of musculoskeletal pain in primary care, which is evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.</p><p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The aim is to compare effects and cost-effectiveness of a stepped care model including advice and tailored behavioral medicine pain treatment (experimental condition) with a stepped care model including advice and physical exercises (comparison condition) for patients with low back and neck pain and/or widespread pain including fibromyalgia in primary care. A further aim is to characterize patients who benefit/do not benefit from the respective steps i.e. treatments varying in dose and content.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> A stratified randomized stepped care design is applied. Stratification is based on primary care center and psychological risk profile. A consecutive selection is performed at primary care centers in southern, central and northern Sweden. After having received a minimal intervention (step 1) comprising 'stay-active advice', participants scoring high on the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire (ÖMPQ) according to preset criteria are randomly allocated to an eight-week treatment in step 2. The experimental condition includes supervised physical exercises integrated with either (a) graded activity, or (b) hierarchical graded exposure depending on psychological risk profile. The comparison condition includes supervised physical exercises irrespective of risk profile. Primary outcome is pain-related disability complemented with a comprehensive set of secondary outcomes adhering to the IMMPACT recommendations.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> The stepped-care design will be presented including illustrations of conclusions possible to draw with this kind of innovative design.</p><p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> There is a call for stepped-care interventions within pain intervention research, particularly in the primary care setting. However, published studies are still lacking. This study will contribute to an important progression of behavioral medicine pain treatments by the way treatments are tailored in accordance with psychological risk profile. This will be discussed to stimulate research activities and collaboration within this area of research and clinical implementation.</p>
  • Åstrand, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • A mobile robot for mechanical weed control
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: International Sugar Journal. - London : Informa Agra. - 0020-8841. ; 105:1250, s. 89-95
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This paper presents an autonomous agricultural mobile robot for mechanical weed control in outdoor environments. The robot employs two vision systems: one grey-level vision system that is able to recognise the row structure formed by the crops and to guide the robot along the rows and a second, colour-based vision system that is able to identify a single crop among weed plants. This vision system controls a weeding-tool that removes the weed within the row of crops. It has been shown that colour vision is feasible for single plant identification, i.e. discriminating between crops and weeds. The system as a whole has been verified, showing that the subsystems are able to work together effectively. A first trial in a greenhouse showed that the robot is able to manage weed control within a row of sugar beet plants.</p>
  • Åstrand, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • A vision based row-following system for agricultural field machinery
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Mechatronics (Oxford). - Amsterdam : Elsevier. - 0957-4158 .- 1873-4006. ; 15:2, s. 251-269
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In the future, mobile robots will most probably navigate through the fields autonomously to perform different kind of agricultural operations. As most crops are cultivated in rows, an important step towards this long-term goal is the development of a row-recognition system, which will allow a robot to accurately follow a row of plants. In this paper we describe a new method for robust recognition of plant rows based on the Hough transform. Our method adapts to the size of plants, is able to fuse information coming from two rows or more and is very robust against the presence of many weeds. The accuracy of the position estimation relative to the row proved to be good with a standard deviation between 0.6 and 1.2 cm depending on the plant size. The system has been tested on both an inter-row cultivator and a mobile robot. Extensive field tests have showed that the system is sufficiently accurate and fast to control the cultivator and the mobile robot in a closed-loop fashion with a standard deviation of the position of 2.7 and 2.3 cm, respectively. The vision system is also able to detect exceptional situations by itself, for example the occurrence of the end of a row.</p>
  • Åstrand, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • An agricultural mobile robot with vision-based perception for mechanical weed control
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Autonomous Robots. - Kluwer Academic Publishers. - 0929-5593 .- 1573-7527. ; 13:1, s. 21-35
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This paper presents an autonomous agricultural mobile robot for mechanical weed control in outdoor environments. The robot employs two vision systems: one gray-level vision system that is able to recognize the row structure formed by the crops and to guide the robot along the rows and a second, color-based vision system that is able to identify a single crop among weed plants. This vision system controls a weeding-tool that removes the weed within the row of crops. The row-recognition system is based on a novel algorithm and has been tested extensively in outdoor field tests and proven to be able to guide the robot with an accuracy of 2 cm. It has been shown that color vision is feasible for single plant identification, i.e., discriminating between crops and weeds. The system as a whole has been verified, showing that the subsystems are able to work together effectively. A first trial in a greenhouse showed that the robot is able to manage weed control within a row of crops.</p>
  • Åstrand, Björn, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • An autonomous robotic system for load transportation
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Program and Abstracts, Fourth Swedish Workshop on Autonomous Robotics, SWAR'09. - Västerås : Mälardalen University. ; s. 56-57
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Åstrand, Björn, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • Segmentation of partially occluded plant leaves
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: IWSSIP 200613th International Conference on Systems, Signals and Image ProcessingSeptember 21-23, 2006, Budapest, Hungary. - Stockholm : Harlequin. - 80-89082-09-2
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>N/A</p>
  • Åstrand, Björn, 1969- (författare)
  • Vision Based Perception for Mechatronic Weed Control
  • 2005
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The use of computer-based signal processing and sensor technology to guide and control different types of agricultural field implements increases the performance of traditional implements and even makes it possible to create new ones. This thesis increases the knowledge on vision-based perception for mechatronic weed control. The contributions are of four different kinds:</p><p>First, a vision-based system for row guidance of agricultural field machinery has been proposed. The system uses a novel method, based on the Hough transform, for row recognition of crop rows.</p><p>Second is a proposal for a vision-based perception system to discriminate between crops and weeds, using images from real situations in the field. Most crops are cultivated in rows and sown in a defined pattern, i.e. with a constant inter-plant distance. The proposed method introduces the concept of using these geometrical properties of the scene (context) for single plant recognition and localization. A mathematical model of a crop row has been derived that models the probability for the positions of consecutive crops in a row. Based on this mathematical model two novel methods for context-based classification between crops and weeds have been developed. Furthermore, a novel method that combines geometrical features of the scene (context) and individual plant features has been proposed. The method has been evaluated in two datasets of images of sugar beet rows. The classification rate was 92 % and 98 %, respectively.</p><p>The third contribution is the design of a mobile agricultural robot equipped with these perception systems and a mechanical weeding tool intended for intra-row weed control in ecologically cultivated crops.</p><p>The fourth contribution is a demonstration of the feasibility of the perception systems in real field environments, especially with respect to robustness and real-time performance. The row guidance system has been implemented in three different row cultivators and performed inter-row weed control at two commercial farms. The robot has proven to be able to follow a row structure by itself, while performing weed control within the seed line of a crop row, i.e. intra-row cultivation. </p>
  • Ödegård, Synnöve, et al. (författare)
  • Perceived potential risk factors in child care
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Health Organisation & Management. - Bingley, United Kingdom : Emerald Group Publishing Limited. - 1477-7266 .- 1758-7247. ; 18:1, s. 38-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This study is based on semi-structured interviews focusing on staff members’ opinions about potential risk factors that could threaten patient safety. The aim was to acquire more in-depth knowledge about the causes of patient injuries. The study, which was conducted at a children's hospital, has a qualitative approach that is influenced by the critical incident technique. A total of 28 persons were interviewed. Analysis of the data resulted in five qualitatively differentiated categories of potential risk factors: a large influx of patients, a lack of professional experience, a lack of inter-professional communication and cooperation, and deficiencies related to work hours and to the physical environment. The results reflect a complex picture where the risks, as described by the informants, can either alone or in concert directly or indirectly affect the individual in the practice of his or her profession or contribute to a mistake.</p>
  • Öhlén, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Students’ learning as the focus for shared involvement between universities and clinical practice : a didactic model for postgraduate degree projects
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Advances in Health Sciences Education. - Dordrecht : Springer Netherlands. - 1382-4996 .- 1573-1677. ; 17:4, s. 471-487
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In an academic programme, completion of a postgraduate degree project could be a significant means of promoting student learning in evidence- and experience-based practice. In specialist nursing education, which through the European Bologna process would be raised to the master’s level, there is no tradition of including a postgraduate degree project. The aim was to develop a didactic model for specialist nursing students’ postgraduate degree projects within the second cycle of higher education (master’s level) and with a specific focus on nurturing shared involvement between universities and healthcare settings. This study embodies a participatory action research and theory-generating design founded on empirically practical try-outs. The 3-year project included five Swedish universities and related healthcare settings. A series of activities was performed and a number of data sources secured. Constant comparative analysis was applied. A didactic model is proposed for postgraduate degree projects in specialist nursing education aimed at nurturing shared involvement between universities and healthcare settings. The focus of the model is student learning in order to prepare the students for participation as specialist nurses in clinical knowledge development. The model is developed for the specialist nursing education, but it is general and could be applicable to various education programmes. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.</p>
  • Öhman, Susanna, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • A Methodological Strategy for Exploring Intersecting Inequalities : An Example from Sweden
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Zhurnal Issledovanii Sotsial'noi Politiki / The Journal of Social Policy Studies. - Moscow : National Research University "Higher School of Economics". - 1727-0634. ; 16:3, s. 501-516
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The article explores the complex patterns of inequality in Sweden from an intersectional standpoint by developing a methodological strategy using data from quantitative national survey material. Intersectionality stands in contrast to the inductive and hypothesis-testing approaches, which tend to reproduce categories as having an essential and stable meaning. It is generally acknowledged that quantitative approaches to intersectionality are rare or in development. Quantitative analyses tend to disregard some of the theoretical cornerstones of intersectionality: in particular, the relational and fluid character of categories. This may be why intersectionality researchers tend to reject quantitative approaches altogether. To address this dilemma, Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) is applied as a means of linking objective structures to subjective experiences, and it is argued that this methodology is well suited to detecting and capturing social spaces of privilege and oppression. The result shows that this kind of quantitative approach to intersectional analysis can facilitate the exploration of inequalities and positions of privilege across populations and globally at particular times, as well as contributing to ontological and epistemological perspectives on intersectionality. By exploring what the category is said to describe and how these parts relate to other sub-categories, especially about time and place settings and their intersections, we were able to identify relationships between structures of oppression and subjective experiences at a particular time and in a particular place, which is important in understanding both inequalities and positions of privilege. These analyses not only illuminate the hegemonic structures of power that create subordinated and privileged positions but also help us to theorize the non-linear and stochastic relations between and within these positions. This methodological advance also has important implications for social policy. © 2018 National Research University Higher School of Economics. All rights reserved.</p>
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