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11.
  • Aalipour, Mojgan, et al. (författare)
  • Work place factors effect on maintainability in challenging operating conditions
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM). - Piscataway, NJ : IEEE Communications Society. - 9781467380669 - 9781467380669 ; , s. 767-771
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Some industries such as mining industry create complex and challenging work place for maintenance crews. For example in an underground mine, for some machines, heavy maintenance tasks must be performed on site in a limited workspace in a harsh environment, including dust and improper illumination. Such operating conditions can increase the health, safety, and environment (HSE) risk, reduce the availability of the machines and increase the life cycle cost of equipment. A review of current mining equipment design and maintenance procedure confirms that considerable reduction in HSE risk, as well as substantial cost savings, can be achieved by considering human factors. This study discusses the effect of workplace factors on the maintainability of mining equipment. It presents the results from questionnaires on the effect of work place factors on maintainability performance given to maintenance staff at two mines, one in northern Sweden and the other in Iran.
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12.
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13.
  • Aardal, Karen, et al. (författare)
  • Decomposition principles applied to the dynamic production and work-force scheduling problem
  • 1987
  • Ingår i: Engineering Costs and Production Economics. - 0167-188X .- 1878-4011. ; 12:1-4, s. 39-49
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • One of the most important problems in the production and inventory planning field, is the scheduling of production and work force in a dynamic environment. Although this problem can be formulated as a linear program, it is often quite difficult to solve directly, due to its large scale. Instead, it might be fruitful to use a decomposition approach. Decomposition, in general, means decomposing a difficult problem into several easier, or a sequence of easier problems which are later coordinated to reconstruct the original problem.In this report we discuss several possibilities of applying the most common decomposition principles, namely Benders (primal) and Datnzig-Wolfe (dual), as well as a relatively new decomposition method, called cross decomposition, to the dynamic, multiproduct production and employment planning problem. A number of special cases are also presented.
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14.
  • Aardal, Karen, et al. (författare)
  • On the resemblance between the Kornai-Liptak and cross decomposition techniques for block-angular linear programs
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Operational Research. - 0377-2217 .- 1872-6860. ; 46:3, s. 393-398
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper the resemblance is demonstrated between the master- and subproblems generated by the Kornai-Liptak algorithm and the subproblems obtained by using the cross decomposition method on linear optimization problems with block-angular structure. The significance of the similarity between these two algorithms becomes apparent considering the main disadvantage attributed to cross decomposition. In cross decomposition a master problem has to be solved from time to time since the subproblems alone do not always give a converging sequence of primal and dual solutions. But if the cross decomposition algorithm is modified in such a way that the successive primal and dual subproblem solutions are taken into consideration with equal weights, this results in the Kornai-Liptak algorithm for which convergence is guaranteed
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15.
  • Aarrevaara, Timo, et al. (författare)
  • Introduction
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Higher Education and Research in Academe. - Luleå : Luleå tekniska universitet. - 9789174399745 - 9789174399752 ; , s. 11-17
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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16.
  • Aas, Gro Hanne (författare)
  • Kvinneforskningspolitiske (pr)øvelser
  • 1999
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Målsettingen for licentiatuppsatsen er å analysere nordisk kvinneforsknings formuleringer av forskningspolitiske felter, problemstillinger og utfordringer, og gjennom kontakt og diskusjon bidra til samarbeid, diskusjoner og offentlighet om forskingspolitikk i kvinneforskning. Arbeidet har tatt utgangspunkt i relativt nytt materiale fra Danmark, Norge og Sverige. I kap. 1 presenteres prosjektet, problemstillinger og materiale. Kapitlene 2-6 består av innledninger og artikler holdt eller skrevet i løpet av de to senaste åren. Diskusjoner om kjønn og akademia står i fokus i kap. 2 - "Universities have politics". I kap. 3, artikkelen "Gamle og nye drømmer", diskuteres et kvinneforskningspolitiske intervensjonsprosjekt som blev utført for en del år tilbake, og det antydes noen nye omdreiningspunkter for et slikt arbeid. Enkelte perspektiver utdypes i kap. 4, "Kvinneforskningens samfunnskontrakt", hvor termen "kvinneperspektiv" som forskningspolitisk term granskas krtitiskt. De to siste kapitlene tar utgangspunkt i den norske forskningsmeldingen som kom våren 1999. Ut fra tre lesestrategier forsøkes det leses muligheter for kvinneforskningspolitiske strategier. Det ses også på innholdet i regjeringens forskningspolitiske verdidebatt, og det diskuteres mulige intervensjoner i denne ut fra feministiske vitenskaps- og teknologistudier.
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17.
  • Aasa, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • A characterisation of pain, disability, kinesiophobia and physical capacity in patients with predominantly peripherally mediated mechanical low back pain
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physiotherapy. - 0031-9406 .- 1873-1465. ; 97:Suppl. 1, s. eS18-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: The specific objectives were to: 1) describe the level of pain intensity, disability, activity limitation, kinesiophobia and physical capacity in patients with predominantly peripherally mediated mechanical back pain, and 2) investigate whether differences between these patients in physical and psychosocial factors can be distinguished when the patients are further sub-grouped.Relevance: To improve assessment among patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) it is important to investigate the prevalence of physical and psychosocial features in homogenous sub-groups.Participants: Seventy-one patients with CLBP, 20-60 years old, with peripherally mediated mechanical pain at the the moment for the study, were included and each patient was sub-classified into one of five sub-groups based on their pain behaviour and functional movement pattern (flexion n=20, flexion/lateral shift, n=11, active extension n=23 , passive extension n=8, and multidirectional pattern n=9).Methods: Data on pain intensity (Visual Analogue Scale), disability (the Roland and Morris Questionnaire), activity limitation (the Patient Specific Functional Scale), kinesiophobia (the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia) and physical capacity (lifting capacity and trunk extensor endurance) was collected.Analysis: Mean and standard deviation for parametric and median and interquartile range for non-parametric data were used for descriptive statistics. One-way ANOVA for normally distributed data and Kruskal-Wallis for non-normally distributed data were used for analyses of differences between the sub-groups. The subjects were also divided into two age-groups (20-40 and 41-60 years) and measures of physical capacity were compared to women and men at the ages of 34 and 50, respectively, in the general Swedish population using one sample T-test.Results: The patients reported low to moderate pain intensity (3.1/10±2.4), disability (RMDQ (7.27/24 ±4.2) and kinesiophobia (33.4/68 ±7) and these levels were lower than reported levels in other studies including more heterogenous groups of patients with CLBP. The patiens reported activity limitations (PSFS 13/30±23). Lifting capacity and trunk extensor endurance were significantly lower than in the general population in the youngest age-group. No significant differences in pain intensity, disability, kinesiophobia or physical capacity were found between the sub-groups.Conclusions: This research highlights that patients with predominantly peripherally mediated mechanical back pain may differ from other sub-groups of patients with CLBP (e.g., patients with central sensitization as dominating pain mechanism) regarding physical and psychosocial factors. The individual variation in pain intensity, disability, kinesiophbia and physical capacity among the patients indicates the importance to assess these factors in every patient. Due to the fact that there were few patients in the sub-groups, further research is necessary to explore whether there are differences, that we were not able to disingjish, between patients with different movement patterns.
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18.
  • Aasa, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Individualized low-load motor control exercises and education versus a high-load lifting exercise and education to improve activity, pain intensity, and physical performance in patients with low back pain : a randomized controlled trial
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. - 0190-6011 .- 1938-1344. ; 45:2, s. 77-85
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Background Low back pain is a common disorder. Patients with low back pain frequently have aberrant and pain-provocative movement patterns that often are addressed with motor control exercises. Objective To compare the effects of low-load motor control (LMC) exercise and those of a high-load lifting (HLL) exercise. Methods Seventy participants with recurrent low back pain, who were diagnosed with nociceptive mechanical pain as their dominating pain pattern, were randomized to either LMC or HLL exercise treatments. Participants were offered 12 treatment sessions over an 8-week period. All participants were also provided with education regarding pain mechanisms. Methods Participants were assessed prior to and following treatment. The primary outcome measures were activity (the Patient-Specific Functional Scale) and average pain intensity over the last 7 days (visual analog scale). The secondary outcome measure was a physical performance test battery that included 1 strength, 3 endurance, and 7 movement control tests for the lumbopelvic region. Results Both interventions resulted in significant within-group improvements in pain intensity, strength, and endurance. The LMC group showed significantly greater improvement on the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (4.2 points) compared with the HLL group (2.5 points) (P<.001). There were no significant between-group differences in pain intensity (P = .505), strength, and 1 of the 3 endurance tests. However, the LMC group showed an increase (from 2.9 to 5.9) on the movement control test subscale, whereas the HLL group showed no change (from 3.9 to 3.1) (P<.001). Conclusion An LMC intervention may result in superior outcomes in activity, movement control, and muscle endurance compared to an HLL intervention, but not in pain intensity, strength, or endurance.
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19.
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20.
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