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21.
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22.
  • Abadei, S, et al. (författare)
  • DC field dependent properties of Na0.5K0.5NbO₃/SiO₂/Si structures at millimeter-wave frequencies
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters. - 0003-6951 .- 1077-3118. ; 78:13, s. 1900-1902
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dielectric properties of laser-ablated 0.5-μm-thick c-axis epitaxial Na0.5K0.5NbO3 films on high-resistivity (7.7 Ω cm) silicon SiO2/Si substrate are studied experimentally at frequencies up to 40 GHz. For measurements, planar 0.5-μm-thick gold electrodes (interdigital and straight slot) are photolithography defined on the top surface of Na0.5K0.5NbO3 films. The slot width between the electrodes is 2 or 4 μm. 13% capacitance change at 40 V dc bias and Q factor more than 15 are observed at 40 GHz, which makes the structure useful for applications in electrically tunable millimeter-wave devices
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23.
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24.
  • Abbas, Nahlah, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Water Resources of Lesser Zab, Kurdistan, Iraq Using SWAT Model
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Engineering. - 1947-3931 .- 1947-394X. ; 8, s. 697-715
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Kurdistan in northern Iraq, a semi-arid region, predominantly a pastureland, is nourished by Lesser Zab, which is the second major tributary of Tigris River. The discharge in the tributary, in recent times, has been experiencing increasing variability contributing to more severe droughts and floods supposedly due to climate change. For a proper appreciation, SWAT model has been used to assess the impact of climate change on its hydrological components for a half-centennial lead time to 2046-2064 and a centennial lead time to 2080-2100. The suitability of the model was first evaluated, and then, outputs from six GCMs were incorporated to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources under three emission scenarios: A1B, A2 and B1. The results showed worsening water resources regime.
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25.
  • Abbas, Nahlah, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources of Al-Adhaim, Iraq Using SWAT Model
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Engineering. - 1947-3931 .- 1947-394X. ; 8, s. 716-732
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • SWAT model (Sediment and Water Assessment Tool) was used to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources in Al-Adhaim Basin which is located in north east of Iraq. Al-Adhaim River is the main source of fresh water to Kirkuk City, one of the largest cities of Iraq. Recent studies have shown that blue and green waters of the basin have been manifesting increasing variability contributing to more severe droughts and floods apparently due to climate change. In order to gain greater appreciation of the impacts of climate change on water resources in the study area in near and distant future, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) has been used. The model is first tested for its suitability in capturing the basin characteristics, and then, forecasts from six GCMs with about half-a-century lead time to 2046-2064 and one-century lead time to 2080-2100 are incorporated to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources under three emission scenarios: A2, A1B and B1. The results showed worsening water resources regime into the future.
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26.
  • Abbas, Nahlah, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of climate change impacts on water resources of Khabour in Kurdistan , Iraq using SWAT model
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology. - 1058-3912 .- 1996-7918. ; 24, s. 1-21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Khabour River is one of five tributaries of Tigris River and the first river flows into Tigris River contributing to Tigris Flow by about 2 BCM at Zakho Station. The area of this catchment is 6,143 km2, of which 57% are located in Turkey and 43% in Iraq with a total length of 181 km. Khabour River is the main source of fresh water to Duhok City, one of the major cities of Kurdistan Region. Hydrometeorological data over the past several decades reveal that the catchment is experiencing increasing variability in precipitation and stream flow contributing to more severe droughts and floods presumably due to climate change. SWAT model was applied to capture the dynamics of the basin. The model was calibrated at Zakho station. The performance of the model was rather satisfactory; R2 and ENC were 0.5 and 0.51, respectively in calibration period. In validation process R2 and ENC were nearly consistent. In the next stage, six GCMs from CMIP3 namely, CGCM3.1/T47, CNRM-CM3, GFDL-CM2.1, IPSLCM4, MIROC3.2 (medres) and MRI CGCM2.3.2 were selected for climate change projections in the basin under a very high emissions scenario (A2), a medium emissions scenario (A1B) and a low emissions scenario (B1) for two future periods (2046-2064) and (2080-2100). All GCMs showed consistent increases in temperature and decreases in precipitation, and as expected, highest rate for A2 and lowest rate for B1. The projected temperatures and precipitation were input to the SWAT model to project water resources, and the model outputs were compared with the baseline period (1980-2010), the picture that emerged depicted deteriorating water resources variability.
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27.
  • Abbas, Nahla, et al. (författare)
  • Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources of Greater Zab River, Iraq
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. - 1934-7359 .- 1934-7367. ; 10:12, s. 1384-1402
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Greater Zab is the largest tributary of the Tigris River in Iraq where the catchment area is currently being plagued by water scarcity and pollution problems. Contemporary studies have revealed that blue and green waters of the basin have been manifesting increasing variability contributing to more severe droughts and floods apparently due to climate change. In order to gain greater appreciation of the impacts of climate change on water resources in the study area in near and distant future, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) has been used. The model is first tested for its suitability in capturing the basin characteristics, and then, orecasts from six GCMs (general circulation models) with about half-a-century lead time to 2046~2064 and one-century lead time to 2080~2100 are incorporated to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources under three emission scenarios: A1B, A2 andB1. The results showed worsening water resources regime into the future.
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28.
  • Abbas, Nahla, et al. (författare)
  • Flow Variation of the Major Tributaries of Tigris River Due to Climate Change
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Engineering. - : Scientific Research Publishing. - 1947-3931 .- 1947-394X. ; 11:8, s. 437-442
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Iraq relies greatly  on  the  flow of  the  Euphrates  and  Tigris Rivers  and  their tributaries. Five tributaries namely Khabour, Greater Zab, Lesser Zab, AlAd- hiam  and  Daylia,  which  are  the  major  tributaries  of  Tigris  River,  sustain Northern  Iraq  Region,  a  semi-arid,  mainly  a  pastureland.  These  tributaries contribute about 24 km3  of water annually. The discharge in the tributaries, in recent  times,  has  been  suffering  increasing  variability  contributing  to  more severe droughts and floods apparently due to climate change. This is because there were no dams constructed outside Iraq previously. For an appropriate appreciation,  Soil  Water  Assessment Tool  (SWAT)  model  was used  to evaluate  the  impact  of  climate  change  on  their  discharge  for  a  half-centennial lead time to 2046-2064 and a centennial lead time to 2080-2100. The suitability of the model was first evaluated, and then, outputs from six GCMs were incorporated  to  evaluate  the  impacts  of  climate  change  on  water  resources under three emission scenarios: A1B, A2 and B1. The results showed that wa-ter resources are expected to decrease with time.
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29.
  • Abbas, Nahla, et al. (författare)
  • Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources in Diyala River Basin, Iraq
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. - New York. - 1934-7359 .- 1934-7367. ; 10:9, s. 1059-1074
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diyala River is the third largest tributary of the Tigris River running 445 km length and draining an area of 32,600 km2. The river is the major source of water supply for Diyala City for municipal, domestic, agriculture and other purposes. Diyala River Basin currently is suffering from water scarcity and contamination problems. Up-to-date studies have shown that blue and green waters of a basin have been demonstrating increasing variability contributing to more severe droughts and floods seemingly due to climate change. To obtain better understanding of the impacts of climate change on water resources in Diyala River Basin in near 2046~2064 and distant future 2080~2100, SWAT (soil and water assessment tool) was used. The model is first examined for its capability of capturing the basin characteristics, and then, projections from six GCMs (general circulation models) are incorporated  to assess the impacts of climate change on water resources under three emission scenarios: A2, A1B and B1. The results showed deteriorating water resources regime into the future.
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30.
  • Abbas, Nahlah, et al. (författare)
  • Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources of Greater Zab and Lesser Zab Basins, Iraq, Using Soil and Water Assessment Tool Model
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering. - : World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society. - 2010-376X .- 2010-3778. ; 11:10, s. 823-829
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Greater Zab and Lesser Zab are the major tributaries of Tigris River contributing the largest flow volumes into the river. The impacts of climate change on water resources in these basins have not been well addressed. To gain a better understanding of the effects of climate change on water resources of the study area in near future (2049-2069) as well as in distant future (2080-2099), Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied. The model was first calibrated for the period from 1979 to 2004 to test its suitability in describing the hydrological processes in the basins. The SWAT model showed a good performance in simulating streamflow. The calibrated model was then used to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources. Six general circulation models (GCMs) from phase five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) under three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5 for periods of 2049-2069 and 2080-2099 were used to project the climate change impacts on these basins. The results demonstrated a significant decline in water resources availability in the future.
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