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61.
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62.
  • Abdulbaqi, Dana M., et al. (författare)
  • Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) as a Stepping Stone to Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Mineral Economics. - : Springer. - 2191-2203 .- 2191-2211. ; 31:1-2, s. 239-251
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Environmental concerns about carbon emissions coupled with the oil industry’s need to secure additional CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) projects have sparked interest in the potential that CO2-EOR may have in jumpstarting carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). However, existing studies on the viability of coupling CO2-EOR with CCS have generally placed more focus on either the engineering or economic aspects of the problem. Most engineering studies focus on the technical aspects of the CO2-EOR project to produce the maximum amount of oil, while simultaneously storing the most CO2 during the production process with the economics as an afterthought, while most economic studies found have focused on a singular aspect of the issue such as impacts of exogenously varying injection rates. Furthermore, modelling efforts have stopped at the end of the productive life of the field. We build a unique two-stage dynamic optimization model, which simultaneously addresses engineering and economic policy aspects, to study the viability of coupling CO2-EOR transitioning into CCS. Our model includes a carbon tax for emissions, which becomes a subsidy for full scale sequestration after oil production has ceased; this allows us to explore the transition from CO2-EOR, our first stage, to sole CO2 sequestration in our second stage for a single field. We maximize the operator’s profits across both stages, while tracking the responsiveness of oil production and total carbon movements to both price and policy changes. We pair our optimization model with a reservoir simulation model, allowing us to mimic actual field behavior, giving our work a more realistic representation of both production and sequestration profiles. Our results suggest that small increases in the level of carbon tax can have large and discontinuous impacts on net sequestration. This stems from the observed transition from limited natural sources of CO2 to more expensive captured CO2 resulting from the implemented policy. With appropriate taxes, total volumes of captured CO2 sequestered across both stages are equivalent to 30 to 40% of the emissions from the use of the oil produced. With the credits oil producers receive from sequestering CO2, which equate to the tax, relatively high carbon taxes incentivize additional sequestration without significantly impacting the supply of oil. This, alongside maintaining a steady stream of profits, is a win-win situation for energy security and the climate.
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63.
  • Abdullah, M Ailieen, et al. (författare)
  • Building Networks for Delivering Integrated Product-Service Offerings (IPSOs)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Industrial product-service systems -IPS². - Linköping : CIRP. - 9789173933810 - 9173933813
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The paper describes the effect of forming business networks and collaborations for the purpose of developing an Integrated Product-Service Offering (IPSO) using the Product/Service Systems (PSS). The research method is an in-depth case study of a joint venture formed by four companies developing a new technology for chemical extraction from water sludge waste within the pulp and paper industry.Combining literature from PSS, network theories and collaborative product development, this paper puts forward the benefits for SMEs to collaborate in business networks and produce IPSOs when introducing a new technology in an emerging market. The case study shows that working towards the new market would not have been possible if each party acted individually or maintained their traditional buyer-supplieroperator roles, and that IPSOs can reduce the business risk.
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64.
  • Abdullah, Mukhalad, et al. (författare)
  • Floods and Flood Protection in Mesopotamia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. - UK : Scientific Press International Limited. - 1792-9040 .- 1792-9660. ; 10:4, s. 155-173
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mesopotamia is a land where floods have occurred very frequently. Many destructive floods had been registered by historians, who noted also the food control schemes used in those times. Over history, many structures were built and managed, but this work was taken up again by the General Directorate of Irrigation which was formed in 1917 to manage floods and reduce as much as possible losses, in addition to the development of irrigation works. Plans were made to build a sophisticated flood control and protection system. Several projects were proposed, and since the 1950s they were successfully implemented. Many multipurpose dams were built to mitigate flood conditions in addition to their other functions, such as Mosul Dam, Dokan Dam, Derbendikhan Dam and Haditha Dam. Other projects which were solely planned for flood protection include developing and using natural depressions such as Habbaniyah Lake on the Euphrates River and Tharthar Lake on the Tigris River, to protect Mesopotamia from floods. Moreover, the southern marshes in lower Mesopotamia may be utilized for flood protection. This paper deals only with these natural depressions leaving the dams at the time being.
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65.
  • Abdullah, Mukhalad, et al. (författare)
  • Irrigation Major Systems on Euphrates River within Mesopotamia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. - UK : Scientific Press International Limited. - 1792-9040 .- 1792-9660. ; 10:4, s. 199-219
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Euphrates River is one of the two rivers where the civilization and irrigation had started, many major irrigation systems are still operating for centuries. The most important advancement of irrigation within this area happened after 1920s, where new structures were constructed, new canals excavated, new pumps installed, and salt affected lands were reclaimed. The major irrigation projects in along the reach of Euphrates within Mesopotamia are, Great Abu Ghraib, Great Musayab, Hilla Branch projects, Kifl-Shiniafiyah, in addition to many other medium and small size projects. Besides, some important Barrages have been built for controlling water levels of the Euphrates for proper operation, such as Fallujah and Hindiya Barrages. There is a great need for more reclamation in the lower parts of this territory, as well alternatives are needed to avoid discharging saline drainage water to the Euphrates in some projects.
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66.
  • Abdullah, Mukhalad, et al. (författare)
  • Irrigation projects in Iraq
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. - UK : Scientific Press International Limited. - 1792-9040 .- 1792-9660. ; 11:2, s. 35-160
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Iraq has a unique irrigation system since the early history, these systems are functioning through many irrigation projects built over `Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Irrigation projects include several categories, which are dams, barrages, canals, drains, pumping stations, regulators, and reservoirs. There are six large dams inside Iraq, 5 are existing in Tigris basin, and one in Euphrates basin, these dams which were built since 1950’s are suffering from several issues, like foundation liquefaction, seismic effects, and others. Tharthar Lake, Habbaniyah Lake, Razzaza Lake, and Southern Marshes are also one of the main projects in Iraq to control flood and storing excess water in some. These lakes serve in protection of the main cities during large floods. There are also many barrages on Tigris and Euphrates, some of these barrages are part of Tharthar and Habbaniyah projects, while others serving the irrigation projects in Mesopotamia. On Euphrates, there are several irrigation projects, where the projects upstream Fallujah city are almost small or medium projects irrigated by pumping. Then, in the rest of Euphrates, there are Great Abu Ghraib project, Great Mussayab, Hilla-Kifil, some small projects, and Kifil-Shinafiyah projects. Also, Hilla branch which is the largest branch in Iraq from Euphrates, where this branch is irrigating several irrigation projects. On Tigris basin, there are Jazeera project irrigated by pumping from Mosul Dam, Kirkuk project that is irrigated from Lesser Zab River, and Diyala are projects. Inside Mesopotamia and over Tigris reach, there are Ishaqi project, Nahrawan project, Middle Tigris projects, Dujailah project, Dalmaj project, and Gharraf Canal projects. In the middle of Mesopotamian plain, Main Outfall Drain was completed in 1992, this grand drain are serving around 6 million donum of farmlands.
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67.
  • Abdullah, Mukhalad, et al. (författare)
  • Major Irrigation Systems on Tigris River within Mesopotamia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. - UK : Scientific Press International Limited. - 1792-9040 .- 1792-9660. ; 10:4, s. 175-198
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several irrigation systems have been built at Tigris River basin within Mesopotamia plain. The upper part of Tigris at Mesopotamia is extensively exploited, and several major projects were constructed since the 1970s. These are Ishaqi, Khalis, Diyala Combined Reach, Nahrawan, Dujailya and Dalmaj. Other projects were partially developed, which are Middle-Tigris, Gharraf projects, Great Amarah and KutButaira. The important barrages in this part are Kut Barrage, as well, as the barrages in Amarah area which are of vital importance for irrigation and navigation. Shaat Al-Arab is one of the most important waterways in Iraq. This river has been suffered from water scarcity and riparian countries actions. Solutions for adaptation to adapt the situation were studied and planned carefully, but still there is need for more work to cope with the situation in Basra area.
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68.
  • Abdullah, Mukhalad, et al. (författare)
  • Soil Salinity of Mesopotamia and the Main Drains
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. - UK : Scientific Press International Limited. - 1792-9040 .- 1792-9660. ; 10:4, s. 221-230
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Since early civilization and the farmers in Mesopotamia are suffering from the soil salinity. This problem had caused the transfer of power from the Sumerians to the Babylonians in ancient history. Great efforts and research have been made since the beginning of the 20th century to overcome this salinity problem. Experts have concluded that the main reason for salinity is the salt content of irrigation water and the shallow saline groundwater derived from the irrigation activities. General schemes were planned, which involve building a new system of drains in parallel to the irrigation network. The backbone of the drainage system in Mesopotamia is the Main Outfall Drain (MOD). Large works such as Musayab Main Drain, Main Outfall Drain, Great Gharraf Drain, East Euphrates Drain were implemented, but there are still large needs for much more work to be done.
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69.
  • Abdullah, Mukhalad, et al. (författare)
  • Water Harvesting in Iraq : Status and Opportunities
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. - UK : Scientific Press International Limited. - 1792-9040 .- 1792-9660. ; 10:1, s. 199-217
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Water harvesting in Iraq is an old application with limited extent. Western Desert, Jazeera Desert and Eastern Valleys, are the zones were the water harvesting must be employed. Several water harvesting dams in Western Desert had built since 1970s, these dams are intended to provide habitat and recharge of groundwater resources. There is limited opportunity to recharge groundwater in Jazeera area due to existence of gypsum layers. Regarding Eastern Valleys, the experience of building water harvesting dams on the valleys manifested that sediments accumulation is the main obstacle to adapt this solution. Hemrin Hills considered as one of the most intensively eroded areas in Iraq, so, soil conservation and water harvesting development is important. Many small dams were built in mountainous zone in the last two decades, some are important for agriculture expansion, but there is need to evaluate the effects on large dams feeding. North-Eastern parts of Jordan, which has similar natural conditions of Northern Desert, had present a successful example of water harvesting development.  
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70.
  • Abdullah, Mukhalad, et al. (författare)
  • Water Resources Projects : Large Storage Dams
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. - UK : Scientific Press International Limited. - 1792-9040 .- 1792-9660. ; 9:4, s. 109-135
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several dams were built on Tigris, Euphrates, and Tigris tributaries in Iraq. The construction of dams had been done in the second half of 20th century. Of the most critical issues confronting the large storage dams in Iraq are the liquefactions in Mosul Dam foundations, land sliding and earthquake effects in Darbandikhan Dam, and the essential maintenance and rehabilitation requirements almost for all the dams. Absolutely, large storage dams made Iraq surviving from thirst in several occasions. Unfortunately, after 2003, the attention or will are not exist pertaining the building of new or partially built large dams.      
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