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71.
  • Abdullah, Mukhalad, et al. (författare)
  • Water Resources Projects in Iraq : Reservoirs in The Natural Depressions
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. - UK : Scientific Press International Limited. - 1792-9040 .- 1792-9660. ; 9:4, s. 137-152
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Iraq had suffered for centuries from devastating floods, causing heavy life and property losses and for occasions it demolished the civilizations. Since 1950s, Iraq started to develop several natural depressions to function as escape to mitigate flood waves. The projects of this kind which had developed are: Habbaniyah project, Tharthar project, Schweicha depression and Southern Marshes. The exploitation of these projects comprises building barrages, regulators, and dykes. For Tharthar and Habbaniyah, the diverted water re-used during drought season. Although, these depressions which serve as reservoirs provide invaluable role in flood protection, the construction of the existing and future dams will reduce the feasibility of these projects.
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72.
  • Abdullah, Mukhalad, et al. (författare)
  • Water Resources Projects in Iraq : Main Drains
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. - UK : Scientific Press International Limited. - 1792-9040 .- 1792-9660. ; 9:4, s. 275-281
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Iraq has a unique system of drainage. Soil texture, groundwater depth, water quality and other factors lead to the adaption of getting rid the drainage water away to the sea in order to control water quality. The system of drainage is not completed yet, however, the backbone of the system, which is Main Outfall Drain (MOD) was completed in 1992. Other main drains were completed and connected and others are still in progress of implementation where the most important drain after MOD is Eastern Euphrates Drain.
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73.
  • Abdullah, Mukhalad, et al. (författare)
  • Water Resources Projects in Iraq : Irrigation Projects on Tigris
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. - UK : Scientific Press International Limited. - 1792-9040 .- 1792-9660. ; 9:4, s. 201-230
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Along Tigris River reach inside Iraq, many large and small projects of irrigation were built. These projects depend on gravity flow or pumping. Starting from Jazeera project then small projects downstream Fatah, where these feed by pumping. After Samarra scheme, the important Ishaqi project, then after Baghdad, the projects of Nahrawan, Middle-Tigris and Dalmaj. The most important branch from Tigris is Gharraf Canal, which is not exploited yet, although plans were prepared decades ago. Downstream Kut Barrage, several projects are especially on the right side of Tigris. Finally, Shatt Al-Arab project which has a unique importance as it provide the solution for municipal need and save the orchards of dates in Basra.  
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74.
  • Abdullah, Mukhalad, et al. (författare)
  • Water Resources Projects in Iraq : Medium and Small Storage Dams
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. - UK : Scientific Press International Limited. - 1792-9040 .- 1792-9660. ; 9:4, s. 283-289
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many medium and small dams were built in Iraq. These dams are distributed in three major areas. First is the northern area where many dams built in the period after 2003, even there are some that built in 1980s. Second, is the dams built in the eastern valleys, but these prove to be inefficient due to high rate of sedimentation even in the live storage. Third, is the dams in the western desert. These dams were  highly exploited in 1970s and 1980s to harvest as much as possible in this large and promising area and providing the livelihood conditions to settle people. The area has no more projects due to security issues.
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75.
  • Abdullah, Mukhalad, et al. (författare)
  • Water Resources Projects in Iraq : Irrigation Projects on Tigris River Tributaries
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. - UK : Scientific Press International Limited. - 1792-9040 .- 1792-9660. ; 9:4, s. 231-247
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There are five tributaries feeding Tigris River inside Iraq, on these many large and small projects were developed. Two kinds of projects can be distinguished, first the projects of complementary irrigation or semi-rain feed area for agriculture, and example of these projects is Kirkuk, Hawija, Eski-Kalak and small projects in mountainous area. The second group is the projects that depend mainly on irrigation, examples of that are the projects in lower Diyaa. Unfortunately, there was no exploitation of lands enough comparing with the available resources in Great Zab territories.
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76.
  • Abdullah, Mukhalad, et al. (författare)
  • Water Resources Projects in Iraq : Barrages
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. - UK : Scientific Press International Limited. - 1792-9040 .- 1792-9660. ; 9:4, s. 153-167
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Barrages are the early water resources structures that were built in the modern history in Iraq. The main function of the barrages to rise the water levels to feed the main canals of irrigation projects. Further, some barrages are functioning as a diversion structures during floods. The first built barrage and still in operation is Kut Barrage which opened in 1939, while the last one is Amarah Barrage that were opened in 2004. Some of the barrages are in good conditions, some are suffering from technical issues, and others especially at the lower reaches of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers getting insufficient maintenance. Generally, the upstream approaches need dredging of the sediments and small islands, and there is a need also for bathymetric survey of the rivers sections near barrages.  
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77.
  • Abdullah, Twana, et al. (författare)
  • Assessing the Vulnerability of Groundwater to Pollution Using DRASTIC and VLDA Modelsin Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, NE, Iraq
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. - USA. - 1934-7359 .- 1934-7367. ; 10:10, s. 1144-1159
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Groundwater plays important roles as one of the essential source of water supplies of the studied area. Consequently, it needs to be prevented from contamination. In this study, two methods have been examined, namely DRASTIC (depth to groundwater, net recharge, aquifer media, soil map, topography, impact of vadose zone and hydraulic conductivity) and VLDA (vadose zone lithology, land use patterns, depth to groundwater and aquifer media) to model a map of groundwater vulnerability for contamination of the basin. The standard DRASTIC vulnerability maps classified the basin of four vulnerability index zones: very low (34%), low (13%), moderate (48%) and high (5%). While the VLDA model classified the area into four categories as well: low (2%), moderate (44%), high(53%) and very high (1%). The results demonstrate that there is a significant dissimilarity in the rate of vulnerability. Validation of the constructed maps is required to confirm the validity of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, nitrate concentration analysis was selected as a contamination indicator to validate the result. The nitrate concentration of two different seasons (dry and wet) was analyzed from (30) watering wells, considerable variations in nitrate concentration from dry to wet seasons had been noted. Consequently, it points toward that groundwater in the HSB (Halabja Saidsadiq Basin) is capable to receive the contaminant due to suitability of overlies strata in terms of geological and hydrogeological conditions. Based on this confirmation, the result exemplifies that the degree and distribution of vulnerability level acquired using VLDA model is more sensible than that attained from the standard DRASTIC method .In addition, the DRASTIC models need to be modified based on the land use pattern, which clarifies the role of human activity on the vulnerability system.
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78.
  • Abdullah, Twana, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using two different vulnerability models in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Groundwater for Sustainable Development. - : Elsevier. - 2352-801X. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Groundwater aquifer in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin considered as one of the most important aquifers in terms of water supplying in Kurdistan Region, NE of Iraq. The growing of economics, irrigation and agricultural activities inside the basin makes it of the main essentials to the region. Therefore, pollution of groundwater is of specific worry as groundwater resources are the principal source of water for drinking, agriculture, irrigation and industrial activities. Thus, the best and practical arrangement is to keep the pollution of groundwater through. The current study aims to evaluate of the vulnerability of groundwater aquifers of the study area. Two models were applied, to be specific VLDA and COP to develop maps of groundwater vulnerability for contamination. The VLDA model classified the area into four classes of vulnerability: low, moderate, high and very high with coverage area of (2%,44%,53% and 1%), respectively. While four vulnerability classes were accomplished dependent on COP model including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes with coverage areas of (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) respectively. To confirm the suitability of each map for assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the area, it required to be validated of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, groundwater age evaluated utilizing tritium isotopes investigation and applied it to validate the vulnerability results. Based on this validation, the outcome exhibits that the vulnerability classes acquired utilizing VLDA model are more predictable contrasted with the COP model.
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79.
  • Abdullah, Twana, et al. (författare)
  • Classification of groundwater based on irrigation water quality index and GIS in Halabja Saidsadiq basin, NE Iraq
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology. - 1058-3912 .- 1996-7918. ; 24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Assessment of groundwater for irrigation purpose is proposed using the Irrigation Water Quality Index (IWQI) within the GIS environment. The model was applied to several aquifers in the study basin. Water samples were collected from thirty-nine sites from both water wells and springs from the dry season (September 2014) and the wet season (May 2015). Samples were tested chemically and physically for several variables: EC, Ca+2, Mg+2, Cl-, Na+ and HCO3- and SAR. The accuracy and precision methods were applied to find out the uncertainty of the chemical analysis results and its validity of application for the geochemical interpretations. Based on the spatial distribution of IWQI, the groundwater quality of HSB classified into several classes of both dry and wet seasons in terms of its restrictions on irrigation purposes. The classes include, Severe Restriction (SR), High Restriction (HR) and Moderate Restriction (MR). The coverage areas of all three classes are 1.4%, 52.4% and 46.2% for the dry season and 0.7%, 83.3% and16% for wet seasons respectively. The considerable variations in all these classes have been noted from dry to wet seasons, this might be related to increasing the aquifer recharges from precipitation and decreasing the aquifer discharges by the consumers in the wet season. Then the model was validated based on the relation between the aquifer recharge and spatial distribution of IWQI, the result of this validation confirmed the outcome of this study.
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80.
  • Abdullah, Twana, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of Agricultural activities on Groundwater Vulnerability : Case Study of Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology. - 1058-3912 .- 1996-7918. ; 23:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Groundwater is one of the main sources of water in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin of northeast Iraq. It covers an area of 1278 square kilometers with population of about 190,727.In this study, the standard DRASTIC method has been applied to generate a map of groundwater pollution vulnerability of the basin. In addition, two different scenes of landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were used with the aid of ERDAS IMAGINE software and the GIS technique to prepare digital image classification of the study basin. Supervised classification for level I of USGS was conducted with band combination RGB/742 to prepare The Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) map. The LULC map illustrates that only five classes of land use can be identified these are: barren, agricultural, vegetation, urban and wet land or water body. The LULC map converted to LULC index map. This index map has an additional parameter added to the standard DRASTIC model to map the modified DRASTIC vulnerability in the study basin. Nitrate concentration analysis was selected and added as a pollution indicator to validate this modification. In this study, the nitrate concentration between two different seasons (dry and wet) was analyzed from (30) water wells. The standard vulnerability map of the studied basin classified the basin into four vulnerability index zones: very low (34%), low (13%), moderate (48%) and high (5%). While the combined modification classified the area into five classes: very low (1.17%), low (36.82%), moderate (17.57%), high (43.42%) and very high (1.02%). The results s that the modified DRASTIC model was dramatically superior to the standard model; therefore, the most appropriate method to apply is the combination of standard DRASTIC model with LULC index map. This conclusion is based on the results of nitrate content, as its concentration in the dry season is much lower than in the wet season.
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