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  • Frisch, Morten, et al. (författare)
  • [Sexually transmitted infection as a cause of anal cancer]
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Ugeskrift for læger. - 0041-5782 .- 1603-6824. ; 160:49, s. 7109-7117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Interviews were carried out with 423 women and 93 men with invasive or in situ anal cancer in Denmark and Sweden in a search for clues to the aetiology of this neoplasm. Patients with rectal adenocarcinoma (n = 534) and persons drawn from the background population (n = 554) served as controls. Multivariate logistic regression analyses confirmed previous observations of a strong association between either male homosexual experience or a history of anogenital warts and the risk for anal cancer. Moreover, hitherto unknown, but strong and consistent associations were observed between measures of high heterosexual activity and the risk for anal cancer among both sexes. Polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed human papilloma-virus DNA in the majority (88%) of anal cancer specimens but in none of 20 examined rectal adenocarcinomas. It is concluded that most anal cancers appear to be caused by sexually transmitted types of human papillomaviruses and, consequently, that anal cancer is a potentially preventable neoplasm.
  • Gustafsson, L., et al. (författare)
  • Efficency of organized and oppurtunistic cytological screening for cancer in situ of the cervix
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 72:2, s. 498-505
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cervical cancer incidence and mortality can be reduced by removal of precursor lesions detected at cytological screening. Organised screening, i.e. regular invitation of defined target groups, is generally considered more effective than opportunistic screening. The latter method however, is predominant in most settings. There is no scientific basis for advocating one type of screening or the other. Our aim was to compare the two types and to analyse their efficiency. We analysed 466,275 smears taken in an open cohort of 118,890 women during 1969-88. A computerised database permitted standardised classification of all smears and complete ascertainment of cancer in situ through record linkage. The number of in situ cancers detected per 1000 smears, the detection ratio, was used as an outcome measure both in univariate analyses and in multivariate logistic regression models. Cancer in situ was detected in 1076 women in the study cohort, with a detection ratio of 3.0 at organised and 2.1 at opportunistic screening, yielding an unadjusted odds ratio of 0.69 (95% CI 0.61-0.79). After adjustment for age and time period, the probability of detecting cancer in situ was around 25% higher with opportunistic than with organised screening (OR = 1.26; 95% CI 1.09-1.46). This difference in favour of opportunistic screening was most pronounced in the first 10 year period and disappeared during the last decade. The difference in efficiency between organised and opportunistic screening in the detection of cancer in situ was slight, if any. The dogma that organised screening is significantly more efficient than the opportunistic type needs reconsideration.
  • Johansson, Jan-Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Fifteen-year survival in prostate cancer : a prospective, population-based study in Sweden
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 277:6, s. 467-471
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To describe the natural history of initially untreated early-stage prostate cancer. A key secondary objective was to calculate long-term survival rates by stage, grade, and age at diagnosis. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Population-based in 1 county of Sweden, without screening for prostate cancer. PATIENTS: A group of 642 patients with prostate cancer of any stage, consecutively diagnosed between 1977 and 1984 at a mean age of 72 years with complete follow-up to 1994. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of patients who died from prostate cancer, and 15-year survival (with 95% confidence interval [CI]), corrected for causes of death other than prostate cancer. RESULTS: In the entire cohort, prostate cancer accounted for 201 (37%) of all 541 deaths. Among 300 patients with a diagnosis of localized disease (T0-T2), 33 (11%) died of prostate cancer. In this group, the corrected 15-year survival rate was similar in 223 patients with deferred treatment (81%; 95% CI, 72%-89%) and in 77 who received initial treatment (81%; 95% CI, 67%-95%). The corrected 15-year survival was 57% (95% CI, 45%-68%) in 183 patients with locally advanced cancer (T3-T4) and 6% (95% CI, 0%-12%) in those 159 who had distant metastases at the time of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Patients with localized prostate cancer have a favorable outlook following watchful waiting, and the number of deaths potentially avoidable by radical initial treatment is limited. Without reliable prognostic indicators, an aggressive approach to all patients with early disease would entail substantial overtreatment. In contrast, patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease need trials of aggressive therapy to improve their poor prognosis.
  • Kitahara, Cari M., et al. (författare)
  • Association between Class III Obesity (BMI of 40-59 kg/m(2)) and Mortality : A Pooled Analysis of 20 Prospective Studies
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: ; 11:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The prevalence of class III obesity (body mass index [BMI]>= 40 kg/m(2)) has increased dramatically in several countries and currently affects 6% of adults in the US, with uncertain impact on the risks of illness and death. Using data from a large pooled study, we evaluated the risk of death, overall and due to a wide range of causes, and years of life expectancy lost associated with class III obesity. Methods and Findings: In a pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies from the United States, Sweden, and Australia, we estimated sex-and age-adjusted total and cause-specific mortality rates (deaths per 100,000 persons per year) and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for adults, aged 19-83 y at baseline, classified as obese class III (BMI 40.0-59.9 kg/m(2)) compared with those classified as normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). Participants reporting ever smoking cigarettes or a history of chronic disease (heart disease, cancer, stroke, or emphysema) on baseline questionnaires were excluded. Among 9,564 class III obesity participants, mortality rates were 856.0 in men and 663.0 in women during the study period (19762009). Among 304,011 normal-weight participants, rates were 346.7 and 280.5 in men and women, respectively. Deaths from heart disease contributed largely to the excess rates in the class III obesity group (rate differences = 238.9 and 132.8 in men and women, respectively), followed by deaths from cancer (rate differences = 36.7 and 62.3 in men and women, respectively) and diabetes (rate differences = 51.2 and 29.2 in men and women, respectively). Within the class III obesity range, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for total deaths and deaths due to heart disease, cancer, diabetes, nephritis/nephrotic syndrome/nephrosis, chronic lower respiratory disease, and influenza/pneumonia increased with increasing BMI. Compared with normal-weight BMI, a BMI of 40-44.9, 45-49.9, 50-54.9, and 55-59.9 kg/m(2) was associated with an estimated 6.5 (95% CI: 5.7-7.3), 8.9 (95% CI: 7.4-10.4), 9.8 (95% CI: 7.4-12.2), and 13.7 (95% CI: 10.5-16.9) y of life lost. A limitation was that BMI was mainly ascertained by self-report. Conclusions: Class III obesity is associated with substantially elevated rates of total mortality, with most of the excess deaths due to heart disease, cancer, and diabetes, and major reductions in life expectancy compared with normal weight.
  • Lindblad, Per, 1953-, et al. (författare)
  • Kidney Cancer
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Textbook of Cancer Epidemiology. - New York NY USA : Oxford University Press. - 0195109694
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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