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25.
  • Ahlbom, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Forskning om elöverkänslighet och andra effekter av elektromagnetiska fält; Åttonde årsrapporten
  • 2011
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Årets rapport diskuterar några forskningsområden där resultaten är av stor betydelse och som kan förväntas tilldra sig stor uppmärksamhet. Det första avser möjligheterna att skatta exponering och den relativa betydelsen av olika exponeringskällor. Viktigt arbete har där gjorts inom det Schweiziska nationella forskningsprogrammet. Vi har inkluderat en figur som på ett enkelt sätt sammanfattar viktiga och relevanta resultat avseende exponering i den allmänna miljön. Det framgår att basstationer, egen mobiltelefonanvändning och trådlösa hemtelefoner är de viktigaste källorna till exponering (om man bortser från lokal exponering till huvudet under samtal). Nästa område avser sömn och EEG-undersökningar. Det har där visat sig i ett antal undersökningar att elektromagnetiska fält tycks ha effekt på EEG under sömn. Effekterna är måttliga och kan storleksmässigt jämföras med vad som kan erhållas till exempel vid kaffe- eller alkoholintag. De tycks inte vara kopplade till subjektiv sömnkvalitet. Hur dessa effekter uppstår och vad de kan tänkas ha för betydelse är okänt. Men det är klart att det är angeläget att forskningen inom detta område fortsätter så att vi kan få denna effekt bekräftad om den är reell och ytterligare belyst och förstådd. Vi har också beskrivit en del ytterligare epidemiologisk forskning och framför allt slutrapporten från den så kallade Interphone-studien. Det har funnits förhoppningar om att denna studie skulle kunna ge definitivt besked i frågan om mobiltelefonanvändning och hjärntumörrisk. Men det stod redan efter publiceringen av de nationella rapporterna klart att så knappast skulle bli fallet. Rapporten har gett upphov till omfattande metodologiska diskussioner, vilka också varit orsaken till rapportens stora försening. Vår bedömning är att denna rapport inte ändrar våra tidigare bedömningar av risken för hjärntumör vid mobiltelefonanvändning, baserade bland annat på vad som framkommit i de nationella rapporterna. Däremot har denna rapport och andra rapporter från Interphone bidragit med viktiga metodologiska insikter. Vi diskuterar några ytterligare epidemiologiska undersökningar men inte heller de ändrar någonting i våra bedömningar. Slutligen presenterar vi nya riktlinjer för exponering från ”kraftfrekventa elektromagnetiska fält” från ICNIRP. De är baserade på en uppdaterad kunskapsgenomgång och på omfattande principdiskussioner. Bland annat har man nu bedömt att också fotofosfener (ljusblixtar) ska ingå bland kritiska effekter vilket i viss mån har påverkat gränsvärdena numeriskt. Detta har dock ingen praktisk betydelse för allmänhetens exponering därför att nivåerna ändå ligger flera storleksordningar över vad allmänheten normalt exponeras för. Det finns dock arbetsmiljöer där detta kan ha betydelse. En viktiga händelse under 2011 som redan nu kan förutses är att IARC (WHOs cancerforskningsinstitut) i maj ska ha ett så kallat monografimöte och ta ställning till hur sannolikt det är att radiofrekventa elektromagnetiska fält är cancerframkallande.
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26.
  • Ahlbom, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Occupational magnetic field exposure and myocardial infarction incidence.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Epidemiology. - 1044-3983 .- 1531-5487. ; 15:4, s. 403-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Studies on healthy volunteers have seen reduced heart rate variability after exposure to extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF). Because reduced heart rate variability has been linked to cardiovascular disease risk, it has been hypothesized that exposure to EMF might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. One epidemiologic study has shown increased mortality from cardiovascular conditions in utility workers with elevated exposure to magnetic fields, but several other epidemiologic studies have failed to confirm this result. We tested the hypothesis that occupational EMF exposure increases the risk of myocardial infarction in a large population-based case-control study of myocardial infarction, with detailed information on potential confounders.</p> <p><strong>METHODS:</strong> We used data from the SHEEP study, which is a population-based case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in Stockholm. Occupational EMF exposure was based on job titles 1, 5, and 10 years before diagnosis. We used 2 approaches to classify exposure: first, specific individual job titles with presumed elevated EMF exposure, and second, classification of subjects according to a job-exposure matrix.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> We found no increased risk of myocardial infarction in subjects classified as having elevated EMF exposure. For the highest exposure category of &gt; or = 0.3 microT according to the job-exposure matrix, the adjusted relative risk was = 0.57 (95% confidence interval = 0.36-0.89).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that occupational EMF exposure increases the risk of myocardial infarction.</p>
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27.
  • Ahlbom, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and risk of disease and ill health - Research during the last ten years
  • 2012
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The focus of this report is electromagnetic fields of the type that occur in connection with mobile telephony, so called radio frequency (RF) fields and the possibility that exposure to such fields poses a risk of disease or ill health. The purpose is to describe what was known ten years ago, what we have learned during the past decade, and where we stand today. TEN YEARS AGOThe mechanism of interaction between RF fields and the human body was established long ago and is increased temperature of exposed tissue (compare microwave ovens). Methods for measurements of the fields in the air were developed early but the data on distribution of the absorbed energy in the human body was still restricted. Data regarding sources and levels of exposure to the population was limited because systematic measurements had not been conducted. A considerable number of provocation studies on exposure to fields of lower frequencies (related to electric power and computer screens) had already been conducted and had not found any evidence of an association to symptoms (headache, vertigo, dizziness, concentration difficulties, insomnia) but the corresponding information about RF fields and occurrence of symptoms was scarce. Few and methodologically limited epidemiological studies had been conducted on RF field exposure and cancer.WHAT WAS LEARNED DURING THE PAST TEN YEARSExtensive research on various aspects of RF fields has been conducted during the last ten years and the knowledge database has increased considerably. Simulation models have improved our knowledge about how the fields and the energy are distributed in the body. Mobile, so called, exposimeters have been developed for use in epidemiological studies. Many more measurements have been conducted to increase our knowledge about sources and level of exposure to the population. More than 15 provocation studies (single or double blind) have been conducted on symptoms attributed to exposure to RF fields. These studies have not been able to demonstrate that people experience symptoms or sensations more often when the fields are turned on than when they are turned off. One longitudinal study has looked at frequency of symptoms in relation to environmental exposure and this study found no association between exposure and symptoms. A considerable number of studies on cancer, and in particular brain tumor, were presented. As a consequence there exist now very useful data including methodological results that can be used in the interpretation of this research. With a small number of exceptions the available results are all negative and taken together with new methodological understandings the overall interpretation is that these do not provide support for an association between mobile telephony and brain tumor risk. In addition, national cancer statistics are very useful sources of information because mobile phone usage has increased so quickly. Had mobile phone use and brain cancer risk been associated it would have been visible as an increasing trend in national cancer statistics. But brain cancer rates are not increasing. WHERE WE STAND TODAYWe now know much more about measurements and absorption of RF fields and also about sources of exposure to the population and levels of exposure. A considerable number of provocation studies on RF exposure and symptoms have been unable to show any association. Overall, the data on brain tumor and mobile telephony do not support an effect of mobile phone use on tumor risk, in particular when taken together with national cancer trend statistics throughout the world. Research on mobile telephony and health started without a biologically or epidemiologically based hypothesis about possible health risks. Instead the inducement was an unspecific concern related to a new and rapidly spreading technology. Extensive research for more than a decade has not detected anything new regarding interaction mechanisms between radiofrequency fields and the human body and has found no evidence for health risks below current exposure guidelines. While absolute certainty can never be achieved, nothing has appeared to suggest that the since long established interaction mechanism of heating would not suffice as basis for health protection.
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28.
  • Alinaghizadeh, Hassan, Statistiker, 1961- (författare)
  • Radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986 and cancer rates in Sweden, a 25-year follow up
  • 2019
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p><strong><em>Aim:</em></strong><strong><em> </em></strong>The current research aimed to study the association between exposure to low-dose radiation fallout after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 and the incidence of cancer in Sweden.</p><p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong><strong><em> </em></strong>A nationwide study population, selecting information from nine counties out of 21 in Sweden for the period from 1980 – 2010.</p><p>In the first study, an ecological design was defined for two closed cohorts from 1980 and 1986. A possible exposure response pattern between the exposure to <sup>137</sup>Cs on the ground and the cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (n=2.2 million). The <em>activity</em> of <sup>137</sup>Cs at the county, municipality and parish level in 1986 was retrieved from the <em>Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (</em>SSI) and used as a proxy for received dose of ionizing radiation. Information about diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1958 – 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry, National Board of Health and Welfare (368,244 cases were reported for the period 1958 to 2009). The incidence rate ratios were calculated by using Poisson Regression for pre-Chernobyl (1980 – 1986) and post-Chernobyl (1986 – 2009) using average deposition of <sup>137</sup>Cs at three geographical levels: county (n=9), municipality (n=95), and parish level (n=612). Also, a time trend analysis with age standardized cancer incidence in the study population and in the general Swedish population was drawn from 1980 – 2009.</p><p>In the second study, a closed cohort was defined as all individuals living in the three most contaminated counties in mid-Sweden in 1986. Fallout of <sup>137</sup>Cs was retrieved as a digital map from the Geological Survey of Sweden, demographic data from Statistics Sweden, and cancer diagnosis from the Swedish Cancer Registry, National Board of Health and Welfare. Individuals were assigned an annual <sup>137</sup>Cs exposure based on their place of residence (1986 through 1990), from which 5-year cumulative <sup>137</sup>Cs exposures were calculated, accounting for the physical decay of <sup>137</sup>Cs and changing residencies. Hazard ratios for having cancer during the follow-up period, adjusted for age, sex, rural/non-rural residence, and pre-Chernobyl total cancer incidence, were calculated.</p><p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><strong><em>: </em></strong>No obvious exposure-response pattern in the age-standardized total cancer incidence rate ratios could be seen in the first study. However, a spurious association between the fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the lowest incidence of cancer before the accident coincidentally had the lowest fallout of cesium-137. Increasing the geographical resolution of exposure from the average values of nine counties to the average values of 612 parishes resulted in two to three times higher degree of variance explanation by regression model. There was a secular trend, with an increase in age standardized incidence of cancer from 1980 – 2009. This trend was stronger in the general Swedish population compared to the nine counties of the present study.</p><p>In the second study, 734,537 people identified were divided into three exposure categories: the first quartile was low exposure (0.0 to 45.4 kBq/m<sup>2</sup>), the second and third quartiles were intermediate exposure (45.41 to 118.8 kBq/m<sup>2</sup>), and the fourth quartile was highest exposure (118.81 to 564.71 kBq/m<sup>2</sup>). Between 1991 and 2010, 82,495 cancer cases were registered in the three counties. Adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1.03 (1.01 to 1.05) for intermediate exposure, and 1.05 (1.03 to 1.07) for the highest exposure, when comparing to the reference exposure.</p><p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong><strong><em>: </em></strong>Using the ecological data, there was no exposure response trend; however, after refining the data to the individual level of exposure, there was an overall exposure response pattern. Nonetheless, due to the time dependency, these results were restricted to the age group of 25 – 49 among males. Using register-based data only, for determining the association between low-dose exposure to radiation and the risk of developing cancer, is difficult since we cannot control for other significant factors that are associated with cancer.</p>
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29.
  • Andersen, Kasper, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of arrhythmias in 52 755 long-distance cross-country skiers : a cohort study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 34:47, s. 3624-3631
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>AIMS:</strong></p><p>We aimed to investigate the association of number of completed races and finishing time with risk of arrhythmias among participants of Vasaloppet, a 90 km cross-country skiing event.</p><p><strong>METHODS AND RESULTS:</strong></p><p>All the participants without cardiovascular disease who completed Vasaloppet during 1989-98 were followed through national registries until December 2005. Primary outcome was hospitalization for any arrhythmia and secondary outcomes were atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF), bradyarrhythmias, other supraventricular tachycardias (SVT), and ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation/cardiac arrest (VT/VF/CA). Among 52 755 participants, 919 experienced arrhythmia during follow-up. Adjusting for age, education, and occupational status, those who completed the highest number of races during the period had higher risk of any arrhythmias [hazard ratio (HR)1.30; 95% CI 1.08-1.58; for ≥5 vs. 1 completed race], AF (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.04-1.61), and bradyarrhythmias (HR 2.10; 95% CI 1.28-3.47). Those who had the fastest relative finishing time also had higher risk of any arrhythmias (HR 1.30; 95% CI 1.04-1.62; for 100-160% vs. &gt;240% of winning time), AF (1.20; 95% CI 0.93-1.55), and bradyarrhythmias (HR 1.85; 95% CI 0.97-3.54). SVT or VT/VF/CA was not associated with finishing time or number of completed races.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong></p><p>Among male participants of a 90 km cross-country skiing event, a faster finishing time and a high number of completed races were associated with higher risk of arrhythmias. This was mainly driven by a higher incidence of AF and bradyarrhythmias. No association with SVT or VT/VF/CA was found.</p>
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30.
  • Andersson, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • A comprehensive study of the association between the EGFR and ERBB2 genes and glioma risk
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - Informa Healthcare. - 0284-186X .- 1651-226X. ; 49:6, s. 767-775
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Glioma is the most common type of adult brain tumor and glioblastoma, its most aggressive form, has a dismal prognosis. Receptor tyrosine kinases such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB3, ERBB4) family, and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), play a central role in tumor progression. We investigated the genetic variants of EGFR, ERBB2, VEGFR and their ligands, EGF and VEGF on glioma and glioblastoma risk. In addition, we evaluated the association of genetic variants of a newly discovered family of genes known to interact with EGFR: LRIG2 and LRIG3 with glioma and glioblastoma risk. Methods. We analyzed 191 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) capturing all common genetic variation of EGF, EGFR, ERBB2, LRIG2, LRIG3, VEGF and VEGFR2 genes. Material from four case-control studies with 725 glioma patients (329 of who were glioblastoma patients) and their 1 610 controls was used. Haplotype analyses were conducted using SAS/Genetics software. Results. Fourteen of the SNPs were significantly associated with glioma risk at p&lt; 0.05, and 17 of the SNPs were significantly associated with glioblastoma risk at p&lt; 0.05. In addition, we found that one EGFR haplotype was related to increased glioblastoma risk at p=0.009, Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.67 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 2.45). The Bonferroni correction made all p-values non-significant. One SNP, rs4947986 next to the intron/exon boundary of exon 7 in EGFR, was validated in an independent data set of 713 glioblastoma and 2 236 controls, [OR] = 1.42 (95% CI: 1.06,1.91). Discussion. Previous studies show that regulation of the EGFR pathway plays a role in glioma progression but the present study is the first to find that certain genotypes of the EGFR gene may be related to glioblastoma risk. Further studies are required to reinvestigate these findings and evaluate the functional significance.</p>
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