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51.
  • Novak, Masuma, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • Social and health-related correlates of intergenerational and intragenerational social mobility among Swedish men and women
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Public Health. - 0033-3506 .- 1476-5616. ; 126:4, s. 349-357
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: The present study explored the pattern and the determinants of social mobility among men and women both at inter and intragenerational transitional periods. Specifically the study addressed what impact do the various health related measures, health-behaviours, psychosocial environments at home and school, material resources, and ethnicity have on the chances and the direction of social mobility.</p><p>Methods: A Swedish 14-year prospective longitudinal study with 96.5% response rate. Detail information on 546 men and 495 women regarding their occupation, health status, health-related behaviour, psychosocial environment at home and school, material recourses and ethnicity prior to mobility were available from ages 16, 21 and 30. Odds Ratios and 99% confidence interval were calculated using logistic regression to determine social mobility.</p><p>Results: At the inter-generational analyses, being liked in school (liked by the teachers and students) predicted upward mobility in men and women. Additionally, being taller predicted upward mobility in women. Downward mobility was predicted by being less liked in school and smoking for both men and women. Additionally, having an unemployed family member for men and not having an own room for women predicted downward mobility. At the intra-generational analyses, less alcohol consumption for men and better financial resources for women predicted upward mobility. Downward mobility among men was predicted by smoking and having restricted financial resources. The chances and the directions of mobility were not influenced by ethnic background.</p><p>Conclusions: Except height among women, health status was not associated with mobility in this cohort for men or for women neither internor intra-generationally, however material deprivation, economical deprivation, poor health behaviours, and unfavourable school environment were.</p>
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52.
  • Novak, Masuma, 1969- (författare)
  • Social inequity in health Explanation from a life course and gender perspective
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background: </strong>A boy child born in a Gothenburg suburb has a life expectancy that is nine years shorter than that of another child just 23 km away, and among girls the difference is five years. There is no necessary biological reason to this observed difference. In fact, like life length, most diseases follow a social gradient, even in a country like Sweden where many believe there is no class inequity. This social inequity in health tells us that some of us are not achieving our potential in health or in life length compared to our more fortunate fellow citizens.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This thesis attempts to explore the patterns of health inequities and the pathways by which health inequities develop from a life course and gender perspective. In particular focuses on the importance of material, behavioural, health related and psychosocial circumstances from adolescence to adulthood in explaining social inequity in musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), obesity, smoking, and social mobility.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>All four papers of this thesis were based on quantitative analyses of data from a 14-year follow-up study. The baseline survey was conducted in 1981 in Luleå, Sweden. The survey included all 16-year-old pupils born in 1965. A total of 1081 pupils (575 boys and 506 girls) were surveyed. They were followed up at ages 18, 21 and 30 years with comprehensive self-administered questionnaires. The response rate was 96.5% throughout the 14-year follow-up. In addition to the questionnaires data, school records, and interviews with nurse and teachers’ were used.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There were no class or gender differences in MSDs and in obesity during adolescence, but significantly more girls than boys were smokers. Class and gender differences had emerged when they reached adulthood with more women reporting to have MSDs but more men being overweight and obese. Women continued to be smokers at a higher rate than men through to adulthood. When an intersection between class and gender was considered, a more complex picture emerged. For example, not all women had higher prevalence of MSDs or smoked more than men, rather men with high socioeconomic position (SEP) had lower prevalences of MSDs and smoking than women with high SEP; and these high SEP women had lower prevalences than men with low SEP. The worst-off group was women with low SEP. The obesity pattern was quite the contrary, where women with high SEP had a lower prevalence of obesity than women with low SEP; and these low SEP women had a lower prevalence than men with high SEP. The worst-off group was men with low SEP. Regarding social mobility, health status (other than height in women) and ethnic background were not associated with mobility either for men or women.</p> <p>The results indicated that unequal distribution of material, psychosocial, health and health related behavioural factors during adolescence, young adulthood and adulthood accounted for the observed social gradients and social mobility. However, several factors from adolescence appeared to be more important for women while recent factors were more important for men. Important adolescent factors for social inequity and downward mobility were: unfavourable <em>material circumstances</em> defined as low SEP of parent, unemployed family member, and had no own room during upbringing; unfavourable <em>psychosocial circumstances</em> defined as parental divorce, poor contact with parents, being less liked in school, and low school control; and poor <em>health related behaviour</em> defined as smoking and physical inactivity. Among these factors, being less liked in school showed consistent association with all outcome measures of this thesis. Being less liked by the teachers and students was found to be more common among adolescents whose parents had low SEP. Men and women who were less liked in school during their adolescence were more likely as adults to be smokers, obese (only women), and downwardly mobile. The dominant adult life factor that contributed to class inequity in MSDs for men and women was physical heavy working conditions, which attributed to an estimated 46.9% (women) and 49.5% (men) of the increased risk in MSDs of the lower SEP group. High alcohol consumption among men with low SEP was an additional factor that contributed to class inequities in health and social mobility.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Social patterning of health in this cohort was gendered and age specific depending on the outcome measures. Unfavourable school environment in early years had long lasting negative influence on later health, health behavior and SEP. The thesis supports the notion of accumulation of risk that social inequities in health occurs due to accumulation of multiple adverse circumstances among the lower SEP group throughout their life course. Schools should be used as a setting for interventions aimed at reducing socioeconomic inequities in health. The detailed policy implications for reduction of social inequities in health among men and women are discussed.</p>
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53.
  • Novak, Masuma, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • The influence of factors identified in adolescence and early adulthood on social class inequities of musculoskeletal disorders at age 30: A prospective population-based cohort study
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - 03005771. ; 33, s. 1353-1360
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Social class inequities have been observed for most measures of health. A greater understanding of the relative importance of different explanations is required. In this prospective population-based cohort study we explored the contribution of factors, ascertained at different stages between adolescence and early adulthood, to social class inequities in musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) at age 30. Methods. We used data from 547 men and 497 women from a town in north Sweden who were baseline examined at age 16 and followed up to age 30. Using logistic regression models, we estimated the unadjusted odds ratios (OR) for MSD for blue-collar versus white-collar workers in men and women separately. We assessed the contribution of different factors identified between adolescence and early adulthood by comparing the unadjusted OR for social class differences with OR adjusted for these explanatory factors. Results. We found significant class differences at age 30 with higher MSD among blue-collar workers (OR = 2.03 in men [95% CI: 1.42, 2.901 and 1.98 in women [95% CI: 1.29, 3.02]). After adjustment for explanatory factors, class differences decreased and were no longer significant, with OR of 1.20 in men (95% CI: 0.76, 1.95) and 1.18 in women (95% CI: 0.69, 2.03). School grades at age 16; being single and alcohol consumption at age 21; having children, restricted financial resources, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, and working conditions at age 30 were important for men; parents' social class, school grade, smoking and physical activity at age 16; being single at age 21; and working conditions at age 30 were important for women. Conclusion. The accumulation of adverse behavioural and social circumstances from adolescence to early adulthood may be an explanation for the class differences in MSD at age 30. Interventions aimed at reducing health inequities need to consider exploratory factors identified at early and later stages in life, also including structural determinants of health. © International Epidemiological Association 2004; all rights reserved.
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54.
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55.
  • Pohl, Petra, et al. (författare)
  • Fall risk awareness and safety precautions taken by older community-dwelling women and men a qualitative study using focus group discussions
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 10:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Introduction Daily life requires frequent estimations of the risk of falling and the ability to avoid a fall. The objective of this study was to explore older women's and men's understanding of fall risk and their experiences with safety precautions taken to prevent falls.</p><p>Methods A qualitative study with focus group discussions was conducted. Eighteen community-dwelling people [10 women and 8 men] with and without a history of falls were purposively recruited. Participants were divided into two groups, and each group met four times. A participatory and appreciative action and reflection approach was used to guide the discussions. All discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis, and categories were determined inductively.</p><p>Findings Three categories describing the process of becoming aware of fall risks in everyday life were identified: 1] Facing various feelings, 2] Recognizing one's fall risk, and 3] Taking precautions. Each category comprised several subcategories. The comprehensive theme derived from the categories was "Safety precautions through fall risk awareness". Three strategies of ignoring [continuing a risky activity], gaining insight [realizing the danger in a certain situation], and anticipating [thinking ahead and acting in advance] were related to all choices of actions and could fluctuate in the same person in different contexts.</p><p>Conclusions The fall risk awareness process might be initiated for various reasons and can involve different feelings and precautions as well as different strategies. This finding highlights that there are many possible channels to reach older people with information about fall risk and fall prevention, including the media and their peers. The findings offer a deeper understanding of older peoples' conceptualizations about fall risk awareness and make an important contribution to the development and implementation of fall prevention programmes.</p>
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56.
  • Pohl, Petra, et al. (författare)
  • Fall risk awareness and safety precautions taken by older community-dwelling women and men : A qualitative study using focus group discussions
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Early signs of mobility limitations and fall events in old age: long-term consequences and tailored preventive interventions through interactive media.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>INTRODUCTION: Daily life requires frequent estimations of the risk of falling and the ability to avoid a fall. The objective of this study was to explore older women's and men's understanding of fall risk and their experiences with safety precautions taken to prevent falls.METHODS: A qualitative study with focus group discussions was conducted. Eighteen community-dwelling people [10 women and 8 men] with and without a history of falls were purposively recruited. Participants were divided into two groups, and each group met four times. A participatory and appreciative action and reflection approach was used to guide the discussions. All discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis, and categories were determined inductively.FINDINGS: Three categories describing the process of becoming aware of fall risks in everyday life were identified: 1] Facing various feelings, 2] Recognizing one's fall risk, and 3] Taking precautions. Each category comprised several subcategories. The comprehensive theme derived from the categories was "Safety precautions through fall risk awareness". Three strategies of ignoring [continuing a risky activity], gaining insight [realizing the danger in a certain situation], and anticipating [thinking ahead and acting in advance] were related to all choices of actions and could fluctuate in the same person in different contexts.CONCLUSIONS: The fall risk awareness process might be initiated for various reasons and can involve different feelings and precautions as well as different strategies. This finding highlights that there are many possible channels to reach older people with information about fall risk and fall prevention, including the media and their peers. The findings offer a deeper understanding of older peoples' conceptualizations about fall risk awareness and make an important contribution to the development and implementation of fall prevention programmes.</p>
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57.
  • Pohl, Petra, et al. (författare)
  • Gender perspective on fear of falling using the classification of functioning as the model
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Disability and Rehabilitation. - Informa Healthcare. - 0963-8288 .- 1464-5165. ; 37:3, s. 214-222
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Abstract Purpose: To investigate associations between fear of falling (FOF) and recurrent falls among women and men, and gender differences in FOF with respect to International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Methods: Community-dwelling people (n = 230, 75-93 years, 72% women) were included and followed 1 year regarding falls. Data collection included self-reported demographics, questionnaires, and physical performance-based tests. FOF was assessed with the question "Are you afraid of falling?". Results were discussed with a gender relational approach. Results: At baseline 55% women (n = 92) and 22% men (n = 14) reported FOF. During the follow-up 21% women (n = 35) and 30% men (n = 19) experienced recurrent falls. There was an association between gender and FOF (p = 0.001), but not between FOF and recurrent falls (p = 0.79), or between gender and recurrent falls (p = 0.32). FOF was related to Personal factors and Activity and Participation. The relationship between FOF and Personal factors was in opposite directions for women and men. Conclusions: Results did not support the prevailing paradigm that FOF increases rate of recurrent falls in community-dwelling people, and indicated that the answer to "Are you afraid of falling?" might be highly influenced by gendered patterns.</p><p>Implications for Rehabilitation</p><p>The question "Are you afraid of falling?" has no predictive value when screening for the risk of falling in independent community-dwelling women or men over 75 years of age.</p><p>Gendered patterns might influence the answer to the question "Are you afraid of falling?" Healthcare personnel are recommended to be aware of this when asking older women and men about fear of falling.</p>
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58.
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59.
  • Pohl, Petra, et al. (författare)
  • Older women and men as co-creators in design of a mobile application for fall prevention
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Early signs of mobility limitations and fall events in old age: long-term consequences and tailored preventive interventions through interactive media.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>IntroductionThere is a plethora of fall prevention programs for older community-dwelling people. The evidence for exercise-based programs is strong. There is a problem however with implementation and adherence. Motivational factors and barriers have been identified to some extent. Previous studies have shown that what works best is when exercise programs are tailor made, home based, and when people have access to personal feedback on a regular basis. Mobile applications for Smartphones with exercises have these advantages, and have been available for a long time, but these are most commonly directed to young and middle-aged people. There are no applications for fall prevention developed based on senior’s own wishes. The aim was to investigate how healthy older community-dwelling women and men reason and what exercises they prefer when participating in development and design of a fall prevention program in shape of a mobile application for Smartphones.Method Participatory and appreciative action research design with focus group interviews and workshops. Qualitative data analysis.Results The preliminary results show that when older community-dwelling men and women participate in developing a fall prevention program for Smartphones, they have many ideas, thoughts and experiences that may serve as a motivational factor for following a fall prevention program regularly.ConclusionThe implementation and adherence for evidence based fall preventative exercise programs is insufficient. This study will gain knowledge to design tailor made, home based fall prevention exercise programs among community-dwelling healthy seniors.</p>
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60.
  • Pohl, Petra, et al. (författare)
  • Äldre män och kvinnor som med-aktörer i design av tränings-appar för fallprevention
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Early signs of mobility limitations and fall events in old age: long-term consequences and tailored preventive interventions through interactive media.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Bakgrund och syfte:Det finns en uppsjö av olika fallpreventiva evidensbaserade träningsprogram för äldre i ordinärt boende. Även om evidensgraden är hög för viss träning finns det svårigheter med att få äldre personer att utföra träningen. Vissa motivationsfaktorer och hindrande faktorer har redan identifierats och forskningen visar att skräddarsydda, hembaserade träningsprogram med möjlighet till regelbunden återkoppling är det som fungerar bäst. Applikationer till mobiltelefoner och surfplattor erbjuder denna möjlighet, och har funnits sedan en längre tid, men dessa vänder sig oftast till yngre och medelålders personer. Det finns ännu ingen applikation som är baserad på de äldres egna önskemål. Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur friska äldre män och kvinnor i ordinärt boende resonerar och vilka övningar de föredrar när de deltar i utveckling och design av ett fallpreventivt träningsprogram i form av en applikation till smarta telefoner och surfplattor. Metoder:18 deltagare > 70 år. Deltagande och uppskattande aktionsforskning samt fokusgruppsintervjuer och workshops. Kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultat:De preliminära resultaten visar att när äldre män och kvinnor i ordinärt boende deltar i utvecklingen av ett fallpreventivt träningsprogram för smarta telefoner och surfplattor har de många idéer, tankar och erfarenheter som kan fungera som motiverande faktorer i syfte att utföra regelbunden fallpreventiv träning. Konklusion:Implementeringen och följsamheten för evidensbaserade fallpreventiva träningsprogram är otillräcklig. Denna studie bidrar med kunskaper för att designa skräddarsydda, hembaserade fallpreventiva träningsprogram för friska äldre personer i ordinärt boende.</p>
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