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Sökning: WFRF:(Akerstedt Torbjorn)

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11.
  • Ivarsson, Malena, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of violent and nonviolent video games on heart rate variability, sleep, and emotions in adolescents with different violent gaming habits
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Psychosomatic Medicine. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0033-3174 .- 1534-7796. ; 75:4, s. 390-396
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To study cardiac, sleep-related, and emotional reactions to playing violent (VG) versus nonviolent video games (NVG) in adolescents with different gaming habits.Methods Thirty boys (aged 13-16 years, standard deviation = 0.9), half of them low-exposed (≤1 h/d) and half high-exposed (≥3 h/d) to violent games, played a VG/NVG for 2 hours during two different evenings in their homes. Heart rate (HR) and HR variability were registered from before start until next morning. A questionnaire about emotional reactions was administered after gaming sessions and a sleep diary on the following mornings.Results During sleep, there were significant interaction effects between group and gaming condition for HR (means [standard errors] for low-exposed: NVG 63.8 [2.2] and VG 67.7 [2.4]; for high-exposed: NVG 65.5 [1.9] and VG 62.7 [1.9]; F(1,28) = 9.22, p = .005). There was also a significant interaction for sleep quality (low-exposed: NVG 4.3 [0.2] and VG 3.7 [0.3]); high-exposed: NVG 4.4 [0.2] and VG 4.4 [0.2]; F(1,28) = 3.51, p = .036, one sided), and sadness after playing (low-exposed: NVG 1.0 [0.0] and VG 1.4 [0.2]; high-exposed: NVG 1.2 [0.1] and VG 1.1 [0.1]; (F(1,27) = 6.29, p = .009, one sided).Conclusions Different combinations of the extent of (low versus high) previous VG and experimental exposure to a VG or an NVG are associated with different reaction patterns-physiologically, emotionally, and sleep related. Desensitizing effects or selection bias stand out as possible explanations.
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12.
  • Lekander, M., et al. (författare)
  • Subjective health perception in healthy young men changes in response to experimentally restricted sleep and subsequent recovery sleep
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Brain Behavior and Immunity. - 0889-1591 .- 1090-2139. ; 34, s. 43-46
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sleep and subjective health are both prospectively related to objective indices of health and health care use. Here, we tested whether five days with restricted sleep and subsequent recovery days affect subjective health and is related to increased levels of circulating IL-6 and TNF-alpha and fatigue. Nine healthy men (23-28 years) went through a 6-week sleep protocol with subjects as their own controls in a repeated measures design with a total of 11 nights in a sleep laboratory. The experimental part of the protocol included three baseline days (sleep 23-07 h), five days with sleep restriction (03-07 h) and three recovery days (23-07 h) in the sleep laboratory. Subjective health and fatigue was recorded daily. Eight blood samples were drawn each day (every third hour) on 8 days of the protocol and analyzed with respect to IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Subjective health deteriorated gradually during restricted sleep (p = .002) and returned to baseline levels after three days of recovery. IL-6 and TNF-alpha did not change significantly. Fatigue increased gradually during sleep restriction (p = .001), which significantly contributed to the association between restricted sleep and subjective health. The study is the first to show that subjective health is directly responsive to changes in sleep length and related to increased fatigue. Thus, subjective health is differently appraised after manipulation of one of its presumed determinants. Larger experimental studies would be beneficial to further distinguish causation from association regarding the underpinnings of subjective health. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.
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13.
  • Miley-Åkerstedt, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Criteria for self-reported quantitative sleep characteristics of individuals who sought medical help for disturbed sleep - a survey of a representative sample of the Swedish population
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature and Science of Sleep. - 1179-1608. ; 10, s. 295-301
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The public often seeks rule-of-thumb criteria for good or poor sleep, with a particular emphasis on sleep duration, sleep latency, and the number of awakenings each night. However, very few criteria are available. Aim: The present study sought to identify such criteria. Methods: Whether or not a person has sought medical help for sleep problems was selected as an indicator of poor sleep. The group that was studied constituted a representative sample of the general Swedish population (N=1,128), with a response rate of 72.8%. Results: Logistic regression analysis, with an adjustment for age and gender, showed an increased OR for a weekday sleep duration of <= 6 hour, (OR >2, and for <5 hour: OR >6). For weekend sleep, the value was <= 6 hour (OR >2). For awakenings per night, the critical value was >= 2 (OR >2, and for awakenings: OR >9), and for a sleep latency the critical value was >= 30 minutes (OR >2, and for >= 45 minutes: OR >6). Adding difficulties falling asleep and early morning awakening (considered qualitative because of the reflected difficulty), led to the elimination of all the quantitative variables, except for the number of awakenings. The addition of negative effects on daytime functioning and sleep being a big problem resulted in the elimination of all the other predictors except age. Conclusion: It was concluded that weekday sleep <= 6 hour, >= 2 awakenings/night, and a sleep latency of >= 30 minutes, can function as criteria for poor sleep, but that qualitative sleep variables take over the role of quantitative ones, probably because they represent the integration of quantitative indicators of sleep.
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14.
  • Sagaspe, Patricia, et al. (författare)
  • Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 3:10, s. e3493-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances.Sagaspe P, Taillard J, Akerstedt T, Bayon V, Espié S, Chaumet G, Bioulac B, Philip P. GENPPHASS, CHU Pellegrin, Bordeaux, France.Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am) on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years) participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC) in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3-5 am) driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05) for the intermediate (1-5 am) driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001) for the long (9 pm-5 am) driving session. Compared to the reference session (9-10 pm), the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001), 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001) and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001), respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05) and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01). At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited.
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15.
  • Schwarz, Johanna F. A., et al. (författare)
  • Age affects sleep microstructure more than sleep macrostructure
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research. - 0962-1105 .- 1365-2869. ; 26:3, s. 277-287
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is well known that the quantity and quality of physiological sleep changes across age. However, so far the effect of age on sleep microstructure has been mostly addressed in small samples. The current study examines the effect of age on several measures of sleep macro- and microstructure in 211 women (22–71 years old) of the ‘Sleep and Health in Women’ study for whom ambulatory polysomnography was registered. Older age was associated with significantly lower fast spindle (effect size f2 = 0.32) and K-complex density (f2 = 0.19) during N2 sleep, as well as slow-wave activity (log) in N3 sleep (f2 = 0.21). Moreover, total sleep time (f2 = 0.10), N3 sleep (min) (f2 = 0.10), rapid eye movement sleep (min) (f2 = 0.11) and sigma (log) (f2 = 0.05) and slow-wave activity (log) during non-rapid eye movement sleep (f2 = 0.09) were reduced, and N1 sleep (f2 = 0.03) was increased in older age. No significant effects of age were observed on slow spindle density, rapid eye movement density and beta power (log) during non-rapid eye movement sleep. In conclusion, effect sizes indicate that traditional sleep stage scoring may underestimate age-related changes in sleep.
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16.
  • Watling, Christopher N., et al. (författare)
  • Do repeated rumble strip hits improve driver alertness?
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research. - : WILEY-BLACKWELL. - 0962-1105 .- 1365-2869. ; 25:2, s. 241-247
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Driving while sleepy is associated with increased crash risk. Rumble strips are designed to alert a sleepy or inattentive driver when they deviate outside their driving lane. The current study sought to examine the effects of repeated rumble strip hits on levels of physiological and subjective sleepiness as well as simulated driving performance. In total, 36 regular shift workers drove a high-fidelity moving base simulator on a simulated road with rumble strips installed at the shoulder and centre line after a working a full night shift. The results show that, on average, the first rumble strip occurred after 20 min of driving, with subsequent hits occurring 10 min later, with the last three occurring approximately every 5 min thereafter. Specifically, it was found that the first rumble strip hit reduced physiological sleepiness; however, subsequent hits did not increase alertness. Moreover, the results also demonstrate that increased subjective sleepiness levels, via the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, were associated with a greater probability of hitting a rumble strip. The present results suggest that sleepiness is very resilient to even strongly arousing stimuli, with physiological and subjective sleepiness increasing over the duration of the drive, despite the interference caused by rumble strips.
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17.
  • Åkerstedt, Torbjörn, et al. (författare)
  • Women with both sleep problems and snoring show objective impairment of sleep
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Sleep Medicine. - 1389-9457 .- 1878-5506. ; 51, s. 80-84
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Combined insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea has been the focus of considerable research with respect to its health effects. A related issue is whether sleep disturbances in combination with snoring might exert effects on objective sleep variables in the non-clinical general population. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the polysomnographical characteristics of individuals who had sought medical help for both disturbed sleep and for snoring. No previous work of this type has been carried out. Method: For this study we used a representative set of data of 384 women with one night of in-home PSG. We identified those individuals who had sought medical help for sleep problems (SL), individuals that had sought help for snoring (SN), as well as those that had sought help for either both (Combined), or for neither (Control). Results: Our results yielded an N of 46, 16, 21, and 301 individuals, respectively. A one-factor analysis of variance showed significant main effects on N1% (F = 10.2, p < 0.001), N3% (F = 2.7, p < 0.05), AHI/h (F = 5.5, p < 0.001), and a delta power measure (F = 3.8, p < 0.05). The combined group showed significantly higher levels than the other groups for N1% (29% vs < 21%), AHI/h (19/h vs < 10/h) and lower levels for N3%, and a measure of delta power. Reported sleep quality measures did not show the same pattern, since the highest/lowest value were found for either the group presenting snoring alone or sleep problems alone. Conclusion: We concluded that individuals who had sought help for both insomnia and snoring showed impaired sleep in terms of PSG and that this was not reflected in ratings of sleep or health. This suggests that simultaneous sleep disturbances and snoring may potentiate each other to cause impaired sleep, yet the mechanism still needs to be elucidated.
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18.
  • Ahlström, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of the road environment on the development of driver sleepiness in young male drivers
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention. - : PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. - 0001-4575 .- 1879-2057. ; 112, s. 127-134
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Latent driver sleepiness may in some cases be masked by for example social interaction, stress and physical activity. This short-term modulation of sleepiness may also result from environmental factors, such as when driving in stimulating environments. The aim of this study is to compare two road environments and investigate how they affect driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove two scenarios: a rural environment with winding roads and low traffic density, and a suburban road with higher traffic density and a more built-up roadside environment. The driving task was essentially the same in both scenarios, i.e. to stay on the road, without much interaction with other road users. A 2 x 2 design, with the conditions rural versus suburban, and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived), was used. The results show that there were only minor effects of the road environment on subjective and physiological indicators of sleepiness. In contrast, there was an increase in subjective sleepiness, longer blink durations and increased EEG alpha content, both due to time on task and to night-time driving. The two road environments differed both in terms of the demand on driver action and of visual load, and the results indicate that action demand is the more important of the two factors. The notion that driver fatigue should be countered in a more stimulating visual environment such as in the city is thus more likely due to increased task demand rather than to a richer visual scenery. This should be investigated in further studies.
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19.
  • Anund, Anna, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Are professional drivers less sleepy than non-professional drivers?
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. - : SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL WORK ENVIRONMENT & HEALTH. - 0355-3140 .- 1795-990X. ; 44:1, s. 88-95
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective It is generally believed that professional drivers can manage quite severe fatigue before routine driving performance is affected. In addition, there are results indicating that professional drivers can adapt to prolonged night shifts and may be able to learn to drive without decreased performance under high levels of sleepiness. However, very little research has been conducted to compare professionals and non-professionals when controlling for time driven and time of day.Method The aim of this study was to use a driving simulator to investigate whether professional drivers are more resistant to sleep deprivation than non-professional drivers. Differences in the development of sleepiness (self-reported, physiological and behavioral) during driving was investigated in 11 young professional and 15 non-professional drivers.Results Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than nonprofessional drivers. In contradiction, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness. They also drove faster. The reason for the discrepancy in the relation between the different sleepiness indicators for the two groups could be due to more experience to sleepiness among the professional drivers or possibly to the faster speed, which might unconsciously have been used by the professionals to try to counteract sleepiness.Conclusion Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. However, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness, and they drove faster.
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20.
  • Barck-Holst, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Reduced working hours and stress in the Swedish social services : A longitudinal study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Social Work. - 0020-8728 .- 1461-7234. ; 60:4, s. 897-913
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Stress has been reported among Swedish social workers for over a decade. Survey data from a longitudinal quasi-experimental trial in the public sector of reduced working hours, with a proportional decrease in workload and retained full pay, were used to examine the effect on stress, symptoms of Exhaustion syndrome, psychosocial work characteristics and work-life balance in social workers. Reduced working hours had a positive effect on restorative sleep, stress, memory difficulties, negative emotion, sleepiness, fatigue and exhaustion both on workdays and weekends; on sleep quality on weekends; and on demands, instrumental manager support and work intrusion on private life.
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