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21.
  • Fransson, Eleonor, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Leisure-Time Physical Inactivity : An Individual-Participant Meta-analysis of up to 170,000 Men and Women
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 176:12, s. 1078-1089
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14 European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985–1988 to 2006–2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2–9 years. In cross-sectional analyses, the odds for physical inactivity were 26% higher (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.38) for employees with high-strain jobs (low control/high demands) and 21% higher (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.31) for those with passive jobs (low control/low demands) compared with employees in low-strain jobs (high control/low demands). In prospective analyses restricted to physically active participants, the odds of becoming physically inactive during follow-up were 21% and 20% higher for those with high-strain (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.32) and passive (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.30) jobs at baseline. These data suggest that unfavorable work characteristics may have a spillover effect on leisure-time physical activity.
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22.
  • Eyre, Steve, et al. (författare)
  • High-density genetic mapping identifies new susceptibility loci for rheumatoid arthritis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 44:12, s. 1336-1340
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using the Immunochip custom SNP array, which was designed for dense genotyping of 186 loci identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we analyzed 11,475 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (cases) of European ancestry and 15,870 controls for 129,464 markers. We combined these data in a meta-analysis with GWAS data from additional independent cases (n = 2,363) and controls (n = 17,872). We identified 14 new susceptibility loci, 9 of which were associated with rheumatoid arthritis overall and five of which were specifically associated with disease that was positive for anticitrullinated peptide antibodies, bringing the number of confirmed rheumatoid arthritis risk loci in individuals of European ancestry to 46. We refined the peak of association to a single gene for 19 loci, identified secondary independent effects at 6 loci and identified association to low-frequency variants at 4 loci. Bioinformatic analyses generated strong hypotheses for the causal SNP at seven loci. This study illustrates the advantages of dense SNP mapping analysis to inform subsequent functional investigations.
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23.
  • Fransson, Eleonor I., et al. (författare)
  • Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Leisure-Time Physical Inactivity : An Individual-Participant Meta-Analysis of Up to 170,000 Men and Women The IPD-Work Consortium
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - Cary : Oxford University Press. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 176:12, s. 1078-1089
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14 European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985-1988 to 2006-2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2-9 years. In cross-sectional analyses, the odds for physical inactivity were 26% higher (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.38) for employees with high-strain jobs (low control/high demands) and 21% higher (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.31) for those with passive jobs (low control/low demands) compared with employees in low-strain jobs (high control/low demands). In prospective analyses restricted to physically active participants, the odds of becoming physically inactive during follow-up were 21% and 20% higher for those with high-strain (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.32) and passive (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.30) jobs at baseline. These data suggest that unfavorable work characteristics may have a spillover effect on leisure-time physical activity.
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24.
  • Smedby, Karin E., et al. (författare)
  • GWAS of Follicular Lymphoma Reveals Allelic Heterogeneity at 6p21.32 and Suggests Shared Genetic Susceptibility with Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 7:4, s. e1001378-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) represents a diverse group of hematological malignancies, of which follicular lymphoma (FL) is a prevalent subtype. A previous genome-wide association study has established a marker, rs10484561 in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II region on 6p21.32 associated with increased FL risk. Here, in a three-stage genome-wide association study, starting with a genome-wide scan of 379 FL cases and 791 controls followed by validation in 1,049 cases and 5,790 controls, we identified a second independent FL-associated locus on 6p21.32, rs2647012 (ORcombined = 0.64, P-combined= 2x10(-21)) located 962 bp away from rs10484561 (r(2)< 0.1 in controls). After mutual adjustment, the associations at the two SNPs remained genome-wide significant (rs2647012: ORadjusted = 0.70, P-adjusted= 4x10(-12); rs10484561: ORadjusted = 1.64, P-adjusted= 5x10(-15)). Haplotype and coalescence analyses indicated that rs2647012 arose on an evolutionarily distinct haplotype from that of rs10484561 and tags a novel allele with an opposite (protective) effect on FL risk. Moreover, in a follow-up analysis of the top 6 FL-associated SNPs in 4,449 cases of other NHL subtypes, rs10484561 was associated with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ORcombined = 1.36, P-combined = 1.4x10(-7)). Our results reveal the presence of allelic heterogeneity within the HLA class II region influencing FL susceptibility and indicate a possible shared genetic etiology with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. These findings suggest that the HLA class II region plays a complex yet important role in NHL.
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25.
  • Virtanen, Marianna, et al. (författare)
  • Long working hours and alcohol use : systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BMJ (Clinical research ed.). - 1756-1833 .- 0959-8138. ; 350, s. Art. no. g7772-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use.DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data.DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies.REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression.RESULTS: Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333 693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100 602 participants from nine countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1.20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours and ≥55 hours a week were 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26; adjusted difference in incidence 0.8 percentage points) and 1.12 (1.01 to 1.25; adjusted difference in incidence 0.7 percentage points), respectively, compared with working standard 35-40 hours (incidence of new onset risky alcohol use 6.2%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky alcohol use in the cohort, or sample attrition rate.CONCLUSIONS: Individuals whose working hours exceed standard recommendations are more likely to increase their alcohol use to levels that pose a health risk.
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26.
  • Araghi, Marzieh, et al. (författare)
  • No association between moist oral snuff (snus) use and oral cancer : pooled analysis of nine prospective observational studies
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - : SAGE Publications. - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Worldwide, smokeless-tobacco use is a major risk factor for oral cancer. Evidence regarding the particular association between Swedish snus use and oral cancer is, however, less clear. We used pooled individual data from the Swedish Collaboration on Health Effects of Snus Use to assess the association between snus use and oral cancer. Methods: A total of 418,369 male participants from nine cohort studies were followed up for oral cancer incidence through linkage to health registers. We used shared frailty models with random effects at the study level, to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for confounding factors. Results: During 9,201,647 person-years of observation, 628 men developed oral cancer. Compared to never-snus use, ever-snus use was not associated with oral cancer (adjusted HR 0.90, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.09). There were no clear trends in risk with duration or intensity of snus use, although lower intensity use (⩽ 4 cans/week) was associated with a reduced risk (HR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.45, 0.94). Snus use was not associated with oral cancer among never smokers (HR 0.87, 95% CI: 0.57, 1.32). Conclusions: Swedish snus use does not appear to be implicated in the development of oral cancer in men.
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27.
  • Forstner, A. J., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study of panic disorder reveals genetic overlap with neuroticism and depression
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Panic disorder (PD) has a lifetime prevalence of 2–4% and heritability estimates of 40%. The contributory genetic variants remain largely unknown, with few and inconsistent loci having been reported. The present report describes the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PD to date comprising genome-wide genotype data of 2248 clinically well-characterized PD patients and 7992 ethnically matched controls. The samples originated from four European countries (Denmark, Estonia, Germany, and Sweden). Standard GWAS quality control procedures were conducted on each individual dataset, and imputation was performed using the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel. A meta-analysis was then performed using the Ricopili pipeline. No genome-wide significant locus was identified. Leave-one-out analyses generated highly significant polygenic risk scores (PRS) (explained variance of up to 2.6%). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression analysis of the GWAS data showed that the estimated heritability for PD was 28.0–34.2%. After correction for multiple testing, a significant genetic correlation was found between PD and major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism. A total of 255 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with p < 1 × 10−4 were followed up in an independent sample of 2408 PD patients and 228,470 controls from Denmark, Iceland and the Netherlands. In the combined analysis, SNP rs144783209 showed the strongest association with PD (pcomb = 3.10 × 10−7). Sign tests revealed a significant enrichment of SNPs with a discovery p-value of <0.0001 in the combined follow up cohort (p = 0.048). The present integrative analysis represents a major step towards the elucidation of the genetic susceptibility to PD. © 2019, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.
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28.
  • Fransson, Eleonor I., et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of alternative versions of the job demand-control scales in 17 European cohort studies : the IPD-Work consortium
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - 1471-2458 .- 1471-2458. ; 12, s. 62-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Job strain (i.e., high job demands combined with low job control) is a frequently used indicator of harmful work stress, but studies have often used partial versions of the complete multi-item job demands and control scales. Understanding whether the different instruments assess the same underlying concepts has crucial implications for the interpretation of findings across studies, harmonisation of multi-cohort data for pooled analyses, and design of future studies. As part of the 'IPD-Work' (Individual-participant-data meta-analysis in working populations) consortium, we compared different versions of the demands and control scales available in 17 European cohort studies. Methods: Six of the 17 studies had information on the complete scales and 11 on partial scales. Here, we analyse individual level data from 70 751 participants of the studies which had complete scales (5 demand items, 6 job control items). Results: We found high Pearson correlation coefficients between complete scales of job demands and control relative to scales with at least three items (r > 0.90) and for partial scales with two items only (r = 0.76-0.88). In comparison with scores from the complete scales, the agreement between job strain definitions was very good when only one item was missing in either the demands or the control scale (kappa > 0.80); good for job strain assessed with three demand items and all six control items (kappa > 0.68) and moderate to good when items were missing from both scales (kappa = 0.54-0.76). The sensitivity was > 0.80 when only one item was missing from either scale, decreasing when several items were missing in one or both job strain subscales. Conclusions: Partial job demand and job control scales with at least half of the items of the complete scales, and job strain indices based on one complete and one partial scale, seemed to assess the same underlying concepts as the complete survey instruments.
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29.
  • Fransson, Eleonor I., et al. (författare)
  • Job strain and the risk of stroke : an individual-participant data meta-analysis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 46:2, s. 557-559
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Psychosocial stress at work has been proposed to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, its role as a risk factor for stroke is uncertain.METHODS: We conducted an individual-participant-data meta-analysis of 196 380 males and females from 14 European cohort studies to investigate the association between job strain, a measure of work-related stress, and incident stroke.RESULTS: In 1.8 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up 9.2 years), 2023 first-time stroke events were recorded. The age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio for job strain relative to no job strain was 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.05;1.47) for ischemic stroke, 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.75;1.36) for hemorrhagic stroke, and 1.09 (95% confidence interval, 0.94;1.26) for overall stroke. The association with ischemic stroke was robust to further adjustment for socioeconomic status.CONCLUSION: Job strain may be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, but further research is needed to determine whether interventions targeting job strain would reduce stroke risk beyond existing preventive strategies.
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30.
  • Hansson, J., et al. (författare)
  • Snus (Swedish smokeless tobacco) use and risk of stroke: pooled analyses of incidence and survival
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 1365-2796 .- 0954-6820. ; 276:1, s. 87-95
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Snus is a moist smokeless tobacco product with high nicotine content. Its use has a short-term effect on the cardiovascular system, but the relationship between snus use and stroke is unclear. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between use of snus and incidence of and survival after stroke, both overall and according to subtypes. Methods. Pooled analyses of eight Swedish prospective cohort studies were conducted, including 130 485 men who never smoked. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of incidence and death after diagnosis using Cox proportional hazard regression models and case fatality and survival using logistic regression and Kaplan-Meier methods, respectively. Results. No associations were observed between the use of snus and the risk of overall stroke (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.92-1.17) or of any of the stroke subtypes. The odds ratio (OR) of 28-day case fatality was 1.42 (95% CI 0.99-2.04) amongst users of snus who had experienced a stroke, and the HR of death during the follow-up period was 1.32 (95% CI 1.08-1.61). Conclusion. Use of snus was not associated with the risk of stroke. Hence, nicotine is unlikely to contribute importantly to the pathophysiology of stroke. However, case fatality was increased in snus users, compared with nonusers, but further studies are needed to determine any possible causal mechanisms.
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