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51.
  • Kenna, Kevin P., et al. (författare)
  • NEK1 variants confer susceptibility to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 48:9, s. 1037-1042
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To identify genetic factors contributing to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we conducted whole-exome analyses of 1,022 index familial ALS (FALS) cases and 7,315 controls. In a new screening strategy, we performed gene-burden analyses trained with established ALS genes and identified a significant association between loss-of-function (LOF) NEK1 variants and FALS risk. Independently, autozygosity mapping for an isolated community in the Netherlands identified a NEK1 p.Arg261 His variant as a candidate risk factor. Replication analyses of sporadic ALS (SALS) cases and independent control cohorts confirmed significant disease association for both p.Arg261 His (10,589 samples analyzed) and NEK1 LOF variants (3,362 samples analyzed). In total, we observed NEK1 risk variants in nearly 3% of ALS cases. NEK1 has been linked to several cellular functions, including cilia formation, DNA-damage response, microtubule stability, neuronal morphology and axonal polarity. Our results provide new and important insights into ALS etiopathogenesis and genetic etiology.
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52.
  • Kuraszkiewicz, B., et al. (författare)
  • Potential Preventive Strategies for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Neuroscience. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 1662-4548 .- 1662-453X. ; 14
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It may seem useless to propose preventive measures for a disease without established pathogenesis and successful therapy, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, we will show that ALS shares essential molecular mechanisms with aging and that established anti-aging strategies, such as healthy diet or individually adjusted exercise, may be successfully applied to ameliorate the condition of ALS patients. These strategies might be applied for prevention if persons at ALS risk could be identified early enough. Recent research advances indicate that this may happen soon.
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53.
  • Lee, Teresa, et al. (författare)
  • Ataxin-2 intermediate-length polyglutamine expansions in European ALS patients
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 20:9, s. 1697-1700
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal adult-onset neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting motor neurons. We recently identified intermediate-length polyglutamine (polyQ) expansions (27-33 Qs) in ataxin 2 as a genetic risk factor for sporadic ALS in North American ALS patients. To extend these findings, we assessed the ataxin 2 polyQ repeat length in 1294 European ALS patients and 679 matched healthy controls. We observed a significant association between polyQ expansions and ALS (>30 Qs; P= 6.2 × 10(-3)). Thus, intermediate-length ataxin 2 polyQ repeat expansions are associated with increased risk for ALS also in the European cohort. The specific polyQ length cutoff, however, appears to vary between different populations, with longer repeat lengths showing a clear association. Our findings support the hypothesis that ataxin 2 plays an important role in predisposing to ALS and that polyQ expansions in ataxin 2 are a significant risk factor for the disease.
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54.
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55.
  • Wills, A-M, et al. (författare)
  • A large-scale international meta-analysis of paraoxonase gene polymorphisms in sporadic ALS.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : American Academy of Neurology. - 0028-3878 .- 1526-632X. ; 73:1, s. 16-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Six candidate gene studies report a genetic association of DNA variants within the paraoxonase locus with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, several other large studies, including five genome-wide association studies, have not duplicated this finding. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of 10 published studies and one unpublished study of the paraoxonase locus, encompassing 4,037 ALS cases and 4,609 controls, including genome-wide association data from 2,018 ALS cases and 2,425 controls. RESULTS: The combined fixed effects odds ratio (OR) for rs662 (PON1 Q192R) was 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.16, p = 0.01); the genotypic OR for RR homozygotes at Q192R was 1.25 (95% CI, 1.07-1.45, p = 0.0004); the combined OR for rs854560 (PON1 L55M) was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.86-1.10, p = 0.62); the OR for rs10487132 (PON2) was 1.08 (95% CI, 0.92-1.27, p = 0.35). Although the rs662 polymorphism reached a nominal level of significance, no polymorphism was significant after multiple testing correction. In the subanalysis of samples with genome-wide data from which population outliers were removed, rs662 had an OR of 1.06 (95% CI, 0.97-1.16, p = 0.22). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to previous positive smaller studies, our genetic meta-analysis showed no significant association of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with the PON locus. This is the largest meta-analysis of a candidate gene in ALS to date and the first ALS meta-analysis to include data from whole genome association studies. The findings reinforce the need for much larger and more collaborative investigations of the genetic determinants of ALS.
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56.
  • Andersen, Mikkel Österheden, et al. (författare)
  • Surgical Treatment of Degenerative Disk Disease in Three Scandinavian Countries : An International Register Study Based on Three Merged National Spine Registers
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Global Spine Journal. - : SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD. - 2192-5682 .- 2192-5690. ; 9:8, s. 850-858
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Study Design: Observational study of prospectively collected data.Objectives: Patients with chronic low back pain resistant to nonoperative treatment often face a poor prognosis for recovery. The aim of the current study was to compare the variation and outcome of surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease in the Scandinavian countries based on The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement core spine data sets.Methods: Anonymized individual level data from 3 national registers were pooled into 1 database. At the time of surgery, the patient reports data on demographics, lifestyle topics, comorbidity, and data on health-related quality of life such as Oswestry Disability Index, Euro-Qol-5D, and back and leg pain scores. The surgeon records diagnosis, type of surgery performed, and complications. One-year follow-ups are obtained with questionnaires. Baseline and 1-year follow-up data were analyzed to expose any differences between the countries.Results: A total of 1893 patients were included. At 1-year follow-up, 1315 (72%) patients responded. There were statistically significant baseline differences in age, smoking, comorbidity, frequency of previous surgery and intensity of back and leg pain. Isolated fusion was the primary procedure in all the countries ranging from 84% in Denmark to 76% in Sweden. There was clinically relevant improvement in all outcome measures except leg pain.Conclusions: In homogenous populations with similar health care systems the treatment traditions can vary considerably. Despite variations in preoperative variables, patient reported outcomes improve significantly and clinically relevant with surgical treatment.
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57.
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58.
  • Bistrom, M., et al. (författare)
  • Leptin levels are associated with multiple sclerosis risk
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Multiple Sclerosis Journal. - : Sage Publications. - 1352-4585 .- 1477-0970.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Obesity early in life has been linked to increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). Leptin and insulin are both associated with obesity, making them suitable candidates for investigating this connection. Objective: To determine if leptin and insulin are risk factors for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods: In this nested case-control study using blood samples from Swedish biobanks, we compared concentrations of leptin and insulin in 649 individuals who later developed RRMS with 649 controls matched for biobank, sex, age and date of sampling. Only pre-symptomatically drawn samples from individuals below the age of 40 years were included. Conditional logistic regression was performed on z-scored values to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: A 1-unit leptin z-score increase was associated with increased risk of MS in individuals younger than 20 years (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.9) and in all men (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0-2.0). In contrast, for women aged 30-39 years, there was a lower risk of MS with increased leptin levels (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.54-1.0) when adjusting for insulin levels. Conclusion: We show that the pro-inflammatory adipokine leptin is a risk factor for MS among young individuals.
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59.
  • Blain, C R V, et al. (författare)
  • Differential corticospinal tract degeneration in homozygous 'D90A' SOD-1 ALS and sporadic ALS
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. - 0022-3050 .- 1468-330X. ; 82:8, s. 843-849
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The homogeneous genotype and stereotyped phenotype of a unique familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (patients homozygous for aspartate-to-alanine mutations in codon 90 (homD90A) superoxide dismutase 1) provides an ideal model for studying genotype/phenotype interactions and pathological features compared with heterogeneous apparently sporadic ALS. The authors aimed to use diffusion tensor tractography to quantify and compare changes in the intracerebral corticospinal tracts of patients with both forms of ALS, building on previous work using whole-brain voxelwise group analysis. METHOD: 21 sporadic ALS patients, seven homD90A patients and 20 healthy controls underwent 1.5 T diffusion tensor MRI. Patients were assessed using 'upper motor neuron burden,' El Escorial and ALSFR-R scales. The intracranial corticospinal tract was assessed using diffusion tensor tractography measures of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, and radial and axial diffusivity obtained from its entire length. RESULTS: Corticospinal tract FA was reduced in sporadic ALS patients compared with both homD90A ALS patients and controls. The diffusion measures in sporadic ALS patients were consistent with anterograde (Wallerian) degeneration of the corticospinal tracts. In sporadic ALS, corticospinal tract FA was related to clinical measures. Despite a similar degree of clinical upper motor neuron dysfunction and disability in homD90A ALS patients compared with sporadic ALS, there were no abnormalities in corticospinal tract diffusion measures compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: Diffusion tensor tractography has shown axonal degeneration within the intracerebral portion of the corticospinal tract in sporadic ALS patients, but not those with a homogeneous form of familial ALS. This suggests significant genotypic influences on the phenotype of ALS and may provide clues to slower progression of disease in homD90A patients.
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60.
  • Blauw, Hylke M, et al. (författare)
  • A large genome scan for rare CNVs in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford Journals. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 19:20, s. 4091-4099
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease selectively affecting motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified several common variants which increase disease susceptibility. In contrast, rare copy-number variants (CNVs), which have been associated with several neuropsychiatric traits, have not been studied for ALS in well-powered study populations. To examine the role of rare CNVs in ALS susceptibility, we conducted a CNV association study including over 19,000 individuals. In a genome-wide screen of 1875 cases and 8731 controls, we did not find evidence for a difference in global CNV burden between cases and controls. In our association analyses, we identified two loci that met our criteria for follow-up: the DPP6 locus (OR = 3.59, P = 6.6 × 10(-3)), which has already been implicated in ALS pathogenesis, and the 15q11.2 locus, containing NIPA1 (OR = 12.46, P = 9.3 × 10(-5)), the gene causing hereditary spastic paraparesis type 6 (HSP 6). We tested these loci in a replication cohort of 2559 cases and 5887 controls. Again, results were suggestive of association, but did not meet our criteria for independent replication: DPP6 locus: OR = 1.92, P = 0.097, pooled results: OR = 2.64, P = 1.4 × 10(-3); NIPA1: OR = 3.23, P = 0.041, pooled results: OR = 6.20, P = 2.2 × 10(-5)). Our results highlight DPP6 and NIPA1 as candidates for more in-depth studies. Unlike other complex neurological and psychiatric traits, rare CNVs with high effect size do not play a major role in ALS pathogenesis.
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