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41.
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42.
  • Armstrong, Chelsey, et al. (författare)
  • Anthropological contributions to historical ecology : 50 questions, infinite prospects
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 12:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents the results of a consensus-driven process identifying 50 priority research questions for historical ecology obtained through crowdsourcing, literature reviews, and in-person workshopping. A deliberative approach was designed to maximize discussion and debate with defined outcomes. Two in-person workshops (in Sweden and Canada) over the course of two years and online discussions were peer facilitated to define specific key questions for historical ecology from anthropological and archaeological perspectives. The aim of this research is to showcase the variety of questions that reflect the broad scope for historical-ecological research trajectories across scientific disciplines. Historical ecology encompasses research concerned with decadal, centennial, and millennial human-environmental interactions, and the consequences that those relationships have in the formation of contemporary landscapes. Six interrelated themes arose from our consensus-building workshop model: (1) climate and environmental change and variability; (2) multi-scalar, multi-disciplinary; (3) biodiversity and community ecology; (4) resource and environmental management and governance; (5) methods and applications; and (6) communication and policy. The 50 questions represented by these themes highlight meaningful trends in historical ecology that distill the field down to three explicit findings. First, historical ecology is fundamentally an applied research program. Second, this program seeks to understand long-term human-environment interactions with a focus on avoiding, mitigating, and reversing adverse ecological effects. Third, historical ecology is part of convergent trends toward transdisciplinary research science, which erodes scientific boundaries between the cultural and natural.
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43.
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44.
  • Bas-Hoogendam, Janna Marie, et al. (författare)
  • ENIGMA-anxiety working group : Rationale for and organization of large-scale neuroimaging studies of anxiety disorders
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and disabling but seem particularly tractable to investigation with translational neuroscience methodologies. Neuroimaging has informed our understanding of the neurobiology of anxiety disorders, but research has been limited by small sample sizes and low statistical power, as well as heterogenous imaging methodology. The ENIGMA-Anxiety Working Group has brought together researchers from around the world, in a harmonized and coordinated effort to address these challenges and generate more robust and reproducible findings. This paper elaborates on the concepts and methods informing the work of the working group to date, and describes the initial approach of the four subgroups studying generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. At present, the ENIGMA-Anxiety database contains information about more than 100 unique samples, from 16 countries and 59 institutes. Future directions include examining additional imaging modalities, integrating imaging and genetic data, and collaborating with other ENIGMA working groups. The ENIGMA consortium creates synergy at the intersection of global mental health and clinical neuroscience, and the ENIGMA-Anxiety Working Group extends the promise of this approach to neuroimaging research on anxiety disorders.
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45.
  • Bentley, Michael J., et al. (författare)
  • A community-based geological reconstruction of Antarctic Ice Sheet deglaciation since the Last Glacial Maximum
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews. - : Elsevier. - 0277-3791 .- 1873-457X. ; 100, s. 1-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A robust understanding of Antarctic Ice Sheet deglacial history since the Last Glacial Maximum is important in order to constrain ice sheet and glacial-isostatic adjustment models, and to explore the forcing mechanisms responsible for ice sheet retreat. Such understanding can be derived from a broad range of geological and glaciological datasets and recent decades have seen an upsurge in such data gathering around the continent and Sub-Antarctic islands. Here, we report a new synthesis of those datasets, based on an accompanying series of reviews of the geological data, organised by sector. We present a series of timeslice maps for 20 ka, 15 ka, 10 ka and 5 ka, including grounding line position and ice sheet thickness changes, along with a clear assessment of levels of confidence. The reconstruction shows that the Antarctic Ice sheet did not everywhere reach the continental shelf edge at its maximum, that initial retreat was asynchronous, and that the spatial pattern of deglaciation was highly variable, particularly on the inner shelf. The deglacial reconstruction is consistent with a moderate overall excess ice volume and with a relatively small Antarctic contribution to meltwater pulse la. We discuss key areas of uncertainty both around the continent and by time interval, and we highlight potential priorities for future work. The synthesis is intended to be a resource for the modelling and glacial geological community. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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46.
  • Bourassa, Alexandre, et al. (författare)
  • Entanglement and control of single nuclear spins in isotopically engineered silicon carbide
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Materials. - : NATURE RESEARCH. - 1476-1122 .- 1476-4660.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Isotope engineering of silicon carbide leads to control of nuclear spins associated with single divacancy centres and extended electron spin coherence. Nuclear spins in the solid state are both a cause of decoherence and a valuable resource for spin qubits. In this work, we demonstrate control of isolated(29)Si nuclear spins in silicon carbide (SiC) to create an entangled state between an optically active divacancy spin and a strongly coupled nuclear register. We then show how isotopic engineering of SiC unlocks control of single weakly coupled nuclear spins and present an ab initio method to predict the optimal isotopic fraction that maximizes the number of usable nuclear memories. We bolster these results by reporting high-fidelity electron spin control (F = 99.984(1)%), alongside extended coherence times (Hahn-echoT(2) = 2.3 ms, dynamical decouplingT(2)(DD) > 14.5 ms), and a >40-fold increase in Ramsey spin dephasing time (T-2*) from isotopic purification. Overall, this work underlines the importance of controlling the nuclear environment in solid-state systems and links single photon emitters with nuclear registers in an industrially scalable material.
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47.
  • Da Lio, Mauro, et al. (författare)
  • Exploiting Dream-Like Simulation Mechanisms to Develop Safer Agents for Automated Driving The "Dreams4Cars" EU Research and Innovation Action
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: 2017 IEEE 20th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC). - : IEEE. - 9781538615263 - 9781538615270
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Automated driving needs unprecedented levels of reliably and safety before marked deployment. The average human driver fatal accident rate is 1 every 100 million miles. Automated vehicles will have to provably best these figures. This paper introduces the notion of dream-like mechanisms as a simulation technology to produce a large number of hypothetical design and test scenarios - especially focusing on variations of more frequent dangerous and near miss events. Grounded in the simulation hypothesis of cognition, we show here some principles for effective simulation mechanisms and an artificial cognitive system architecture that can learn from the simulated situations.
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48.
  • Denver, Dee R, et al. (författare)
  • Selective sweeps and parallel mutation in the adaptive recovery from deleterious mutation in Caenorhabditis elegans.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Genome Research. - 1088-9051 .- 1549-5469. ; 20:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Deleterious mutation poses a serious threat to human health and the persistence of small populations. Although adaptive recovery from deleterious mutation has been well-characterized in prokaryotes, the evolutionary mechanisms by which multicellular eukaryotes recover from deleterious mutation remain unknown. We applied high-throughput DNA sequencing to characterize genomic divergence patterns associated with the adaptive recovery from deleterious mutation using a Caenorhabditis elegans recovery-line system. The C. elegans recovery lines were initiated from a low-fitness mutation-accumulation (MA) line progenitor and allowed to independently evolve in large populations (N ∼ 1000) for 60 generations. All lines rapidly regained levels of fitness similar to the wild-type (N2) MA line progenitor. Although there was a near-zero probability of a single mutation fixing due to genetic drift during the recovery experiment, we observed 28 fixed mutations. Cross-generational analysis showed that all mutations went from undetectable population-level frequencies to a fixed state in 10-20 generations. Many recovery-line mutations fixed at identical timepoints, suggesting that the mutations, if not beneficial, hitchhiked to fixation during selective sweep events observed in the recovery lines. No MA line mutation reversions were detected. Parallel mutation fixation was observed for two sites in two independent recovery lines. Analysis using a C. elegans interactome map revealed many predicted interactions between genes with recovery line-specific mutations and genes with previously accumulated MA line mutations. Our study suggests that recovery-line mutations identified in both coding and noncoding genomic regions might have beneficial effects associated with compensatory epistatic interactions.
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49.
  • Dinsdale, Graham, et al. (författare)
  • Intra-and inter-observer reliability of nailfold videocapillaroscopy - A possible outcome measure for systemic sclerosis-related microangiopathy
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Microvascular Research. - : Academic Press. - 1095-9319. ; 112, s. 1-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to assess the reliability of nailfold capillary assessment in terms of image evaluability, image severity grade ('normal', 'early', 'active', 'late'), capillary density, capillary (apex) width, and presence of giant capillaries, and also to gain further insight into differences in these parameters between patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon (PRP) and healthy control subjects.METHODS: Videocapillaroscopy images (magnification 300×) were acquired from all 10 digits from 173 participants: 101 patients with SSc, 22 with PRP and 50 healthy controls. Ten capillaroscopy experts from 7 European centres evaluated the images. Custom image mark-up software allowed extraction of the following outcome measures: overall grade ('normal', 'early', 'active', 'late', 'non-specific', or 'ungradeable'), capillary density (vessels/mm), mean vessel apical width, and presence of giant capillaries.RESULTS: Observers analysed a median of 129 images each. Evaluability (i.e. the availability of measures) varied across outcome measures (e.g. 73.0% for density and 46.2% for overall grade in patients with SSc). Intra-observer reliability for evaluability was consistently higher than inter- (e.g. for density, intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] was 0.71 within and 0.14 between observers). Conditional on evaluability, both intra- and inter-observer reliability were high for grade (ICC 0.93 and 0.78 respectively), density (0.91 and 0.64) and width (0.91 and 0.85).CONCLUSIONS: Evaluability is one of the major challenges in assessing nailfold capillaries. However, when images are evaluable, the high intra- and inter-reliabilities suggest that overall image grade, capillary density and apex width have potential as outcome measures in longitudinal studies.
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50.
  • Dinsdale, Graham, et al. (författare)
  • Nailfold capillaroscopy-how many fingers should be examined to detect abnormality?
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Rheumatology (Oxford, England). - : Oxford University Press. - 1462-0332. ; 58:2, s. 284-288
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Nailfold capillaroscopy is being increasingly used by rheumatologists in the diagnosis of SSc. However, assessment of all nailfolds can be time-consuming in a busy outpatient clinic. Our aim was to answer the question as to how many (and which) fingers a clinician should routinely assess to capture accurately the true state. Methods: A total of 2994 assessments (by an international panel of expert observers) of 1600 images from 173 participants (101 with SSc, 22 with primary RP and 50 healthy controls) were included in this analysis. Seven single-finger or finger combinations (derived from the middle and ring fingers) were then tested for sensitivity for the presence of two markers of capillary abnormality [presence of giant capillaries and an SSc grade (early, active or late)] compared with assessment of all eight fingers. Results: For the eight-finger gold standard, sensitivity against the diagnostic criteria was 74.6% (53.0% for the presence of giants alone and 73.1% for image grade alone). Examining only one finger gave low sensitivity (ranging from right middle 31.7% to left ring 46.6%). Examining both ring fingers gave a sensitivity of 59.8%, whereas examining the four-finger combination of both ring and both middle fingers gave a sensitivity of 66.7%. Conclusion: During routine capillaroscopic examination, ideally all eight nailbeds (excluding thumbs) should be examined, otherwise some abnormalities will be missed. Examining only four fingers reduces capillaroscopy sensitivity.
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