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Sökning: WFRF:(Andrulis Irene L.)

  • Resultat 61-64 av 64
  • Föregående 123456[7]
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61.
  • Mangerel, Joshua, et al. (författare)
  • Alternative lengthening of telomerases is enriched in, and impacts survival of TP53 mutant pediatric malignant brain tumors
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - 0001-6322 .- 1432-0533. ; 128:6, s. 853-862
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although telomeres are maintained in most cancers by telomerase activation, a subset of tumors utilize alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to sustain self-renewal capacity. In order to study the prevalence and significance of ALT in childhood brain tumors we screened 517 pediatric brain tumors using the novel C-circle assay. We examined the association of ALT with alterations in genes found to segregate with specific histological phenotypes and with clinical outcome. ALT was detected almost exclusively in malignant tumors (p = 0.001). ALT was highly enriched in primitive neuroectodermal tumors (12 %), choroid plexus carcinomas (23 %) and high-grade gliomas (22 %). Furthermore, in contrast to adult gliomas, pediatric low grade gliomas which progressed to high-grade tumors did not exhibit the ALT phenotype. Somatic but not germline TP53 mutations were highly associated with ALT (p = 1.01 × 10(-8)). Of the other alterations examined, only ATRX point mutations and reduced expression were associated with the ALT phenotype (p = 0.0005). Interestingly, ALT attenuated the poor outcome conferred by TP53 mutations in specific pediatric brain tumors. Due to very poor prognosis, one year overall survival was quantified in malignant gliomas, while in children with choroid plexus carcinoma, five year overall survival was investigated. For children with TP53 mutant malignant gliomas, one year overall survival was 63 ± 12 and 23 ± 10 % for ALT positive and negative tumors, respectively (p = 0.03), while for children with TP53 mutant choroid plexus carcinomas, 5 years overall survival was 67 ± 19 and 27 ± 13 % for ALT positive and negative tumors, respectively (p = 0.07). These observations suggest that the presence of ALT is limited to a specific group of childhood brain cancers which harbor somatic TP53 mutations and may influence the outcome of these patients. Analysis of ALT may contribute to risk stratification and targeted therapies to improve outcome for these children.
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62.
  • Perry, John R. B., et al. (författare)
  • DNA mismatch repair gene MSH6 implicated in determining age at natural menopause
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 23:9, s. 2490-2497
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The length of female reproductive lifespan is associated with multiple adverse outcomes, including breast cancer, cardiovascular disease and infertility. The biological processes that govern the timing of the beginning and end of reproductive life are not well understood. Genetic variants are known to contribute to 50 of the variation in both age at menarche and menopause, but to date the known genes explain 15 of the genetic component. We have used genome-wide association in a bivariate meta-analysis of both traits to identify genes involved in determining reproductive lifespan. We observed significant genetic correlation between the two traits using genome-wide complex trait analysis. However, we found no robust statistical evidence for individual variants with an effect on both traits. A novel association with age at menopause was detected for a variant rs1800932 in the mismatch repair gene MSH6 (P 1.9 10(9)), which was also associated with altered expression levels of MSH6 mRNA in multiple tissues. This study contributes to the growing evidence that DNA repair processes play a key role in ovarian ageing and could be an important therapeutic target for infertility.
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63.
  • Shu, Xiang, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of associations between genetically predicted circulating protein biomarkers and breast cancer risk
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A small number of circulating proteins have been reported to be associated with breast cancer risk, with inconsistent results. Herein, we attempted to identify novel protein biomarkers for breast cancer via the integration of genomics and proteomics data. In the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), with 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European descendants, we evaluated the associations of the genetically predicted concentrations of >1,400 circulating proteins with breast cancer risk. We used data from a large-scale protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) analysis as our study instrument. Summary statistics for these pQTL variants related to breast cancer risk were obtained from the BCAC and used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for each protein using the inverse-variance weighted method. We identified 56 proteins significantly associated with breast cancer risk by instrumental analysis (false discovery rate <0.05). Of these, the concentrations of 32 were influenced by variants close to a breast cancer susceptibility locus (ABO, 9q34.2). Many of these proteins, such as insulin receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 and other membrane receptors (OR: 0.82–1.18, p values: 6.96 × 10−4–3.28 × 10−8), are linked to insulin resistance and estrogen receptor signaling pathways. Proteins identified at other loci include those involved in biological processes such as alcohol and lipid metabolism, proteolysis, apoptosis, immune regulation and cell motility and proliferation. Consistent associations were observed for 22 proteins in the UK Biobank data (p < 0.05). The study identifies potential novel biomarkers for breast cancer, but further investigation is needed to replicate our findings.
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64.
  • Onay, Ummiye V., et al. (författare)
  • Combined effect of CCND1 and COMT polymorphisms and increased breast cancer risk
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: BMC cancer. - 1471-2407. ; 8, s. 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Estrogens are crucial tumorigenic hormones, which impact the cell growth and proliferation during breast cancer development. Estrogens are metabolized by a series of enzymes including COMT, which converts catechol estrogens into biologically non-hazardous methoxyestrogens. Several studies have also shown the relationship between estrogen and cell cycle progression through activation of CCND1 transcription. METHODS: In this study, we have investigated the independent and the combined effects of commonly occurring CCND1 (Pro241Pro, A870G) and COMT (Met108/158Val) polymorphisms to breast cancer risk in two independent Caucasian populations from Ontario (1228 breast cancer cases and 719 population controls) and Finland (728 breast cancer cases and 687 population controls). Both COMT and CCND1 polymorphisms have been previously shown to impact on the enzymatic activity of the coded proteins. RESULTS: Here, we have shown that the high enzymatic activity genotype of CCND1High (AA) was associated with increased breast cancer risk in both the Ontario [OR: 1.3, 95%CI (1.0-1.69)] and the Finland sample [OR: 1.4, 95%CI (1.01-1.84)]. The heterozygous COMTMedium (MetVal) and the high enzymatic activity of COMTHigh (ValVal) genotype was also associated with breast cancer risk in Ontario cases, [OR: 1.3, 95%CI (1.07-1.68)] and [OR: 1.4, 95%CI (1.07-1.81)], respectively. However, there was neither a statistically significant association nor increased trend of breast cancer risk with COMTHigh (ValVal) genotypes in the Finland cases [OR: 1.0, 95%CI (0.73-1.39)]. In the combined analysis, the higher activity alleles of the COMT and CCND1 is associated with increased breast cancer risk in both Ontario [OR: 2.22, 95%CI (1.49-3.28)] and Finland [OR: 1.73, 95%CI (1.08-2.78)] populations studied. The trend test was statistically significant in both the Ontario and Finland populations across the genotypes associated with increasing enzymatic activity. CONCLUSION: Using two independent Caucasian populations, we have shown a stronger combined effect of the two commonly occurring CCND1 and COMT genotypes in the context of breast cancer predisposition.
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  • Resultat 61-64 av 64
  • Föregående 123456[7]
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