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Sökning: WFRF:(Björnsson Lovisa)

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11.
  • Barta, Zsolt, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of steam pretreatment and co-production with ethanol on the energy efficiency and process economics of combined biogas, heat and electricity production from industrial hemp
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Biotechnology for Biofuels. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1754-6834. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The study presented here has used the commercial flow sheeting program Aspen Plus (TM) to evaluate techno-economic aspects of large-scale hemp-based processes for producing transportation fuels. The co-production of biogas, district heat and power from chopped and steam-pretreated hemp, and the co-production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power from steam-pretreated hemp were analysed. The analyses include assessments of heat demand, energy efficiency and process economics in terms of annual cash flows and minimum biogas and ethanol selling prices (MBSP and MESP). Results: Producing biogas, heat and power from chopped hemp has the highest overall energy efficiency, 84% of the theoretical maximum (based on lower heating values), providing that the maximum capacity of district heat is delivered. The combined production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power has the highest energy efficiency (49%) if district heat is not produced. Neither the inclusion of steam pretreatment nor co-production with ethanol has a large impact on the MBSP. Ethanol is more expensive to produce than biogas is, but this is compensated for by its higher market price. None of the scenarios examined are economically viable, since the MBSP (EUR 103-128 per MWh) is higher than the market price of biogas (EUR 67 per MWh). The largest contribution to the cost is the cost of feedstock. Decreasing the retention time in the biogas process for low solids streams by partly replacing continuous stirred tank reactors by high-rate bioreactors decreases the MBSP. Also, recycling part of the liquid from the effluent from anaerobic digestion decreases the MBSP. The production and prices of methane and ethanol influence the process economics more than the production and prices of electricity and district heat. Conclusions: To reduce the production cost of ethanol and biogas from biomass, the use of feedstocks that are cheaper than hemp, give higher output of ethanol and biogas, or combined production with higher value products are primarily suggested. Further, practical investigations on increased substrate concentration in biogas and ethanol production, recycling of the liquid in anaerobic digestion and separation of low solids flows into solid and a liquid fraction for improved reactor applications deserves further attention.
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15.
  • Björnsson, Lovisa, et al. (författare)
  • Biogaspotential i Skåne - Inventering och planeringsunderlag på översiktsnivå
  • 2011
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Biogas Syd i samarbete med Länsstyrelsen Skåne har genomfört en inventering av biogaspotentialen i Skåne med en högre detaljeringsgrad än vad som tidigare genomförts på nationell nivå. Målet med projektet är att skapa ett GIS-verktyg som ska kunna användas för översiktsplanering på kommunal nivå. Verktyget ska bland annat innefatta data om metanutbyten för olika råvaror och var dessa råvaror uppkommer. Syftet med föreliggande skriftliga rapport är att beskriva den metodik som använts för att ta fram underlaget till GIS-verktyget och att sammanfatta biogaspotentialen för respektive råvarukategori och respektive kommun. 10 av Skånes 33 kommuner har en biogaspotential från restprodukter på över 100 GWh/år. Den sammanlagda biogaspotentialen uppgår till 2 927 GWh/år. Majoriteten utgörs av odlingsrester, 933 GWh/år i form av halm, 874 GWh/år i form av övriga odlingsrester. Biogaspotentialen i gödsel utgör 450 GWh/år, varav drygt hälften utgörs av flytgödsel. Biogasråvaror från den tillståndspliktiga industri som kartlagts i denna studie uppgår till 364 GWh/år, där nära hälften utgörs av fraktioner som idag används som djurfoder eller går till annan försäljning. Biogaspotentialen i matavfall uppgår till 182 GWh/år, detta är dock potentialen beräknad för hela mängden matavfall medan det nationella målet för 2010 var att uppnå en utsorteringsgrad på 35 %. Slam från de kommunala reningsverken kan bidra med 124 GWh/år.
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16.
  • Björnsson, Lovisa, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of support material on the pattern of volatile fatty acid accumulation at overload in anaerobic digestion of semi-solid waste
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. - : Springer. - 1432-0614. ; 47, s. 640-644
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Anaerobic degradation of a semi-solid waste with a total solids content of 4% particulate matter, much of it insoluble, was investigated in four laboratory-scale reactors. Two of the reactors were equipped with different textile materials for immobilisation of microorganisms, while the other two were used as continuously-stirred-tank reactor references, A constant organic loading rate and hydraulic retention time were used in the start-up period; the hydraulic retention time was then decreased and the effects of this change were monitored. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and pH were chosen as indicators of the microbial status in the reactors. The reactors with support material showed a greater resistance to overload than did the continuously-stirred-tank reactors. This is in agreement with many studies undertaken on the anaerobic treatment of wastewater. However, no problems with clogging occurred, showing that a support material is also applicable in systems treating waste containing large amounts of insoluble, particulate matter. The pH was comparable to VFA for indicating an approaching process failure. However, the pattern of VFA accumulation was qualitatively different between the reactors with and without support material, Obviously the metabolic pattern of mixed cultures changes when the microorganisms are immobilised.
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20.
  • Björnsson, Lovisa, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of new methods for the monitoring of alkalinity dissolved hydrogen and the microbial community in anaerobic digestion
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Water Research. - : Elsevier. - 1879-2448. ; 35:12, s. 2833-2840
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • New methods for spectrophotometric alkalinity measurement, dissolved hydrogen monitoring and for obtaining a fingerprint of the microbial community were evaluated as tools for process monitoring in anaerobic digestion. The anaerobic digestion process was operated at organic loading rates of 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5g volatile solids l-1d-1 and subjected to pulse loads of carbohydrate, lipid, protein and a mixed sludge substrate. The spectrophotometric alkalinity monitoring method showed good agreement with traditional titrimetric alkalinity monitoring and has the advantage of being easy to modify to on-line monitoring applications. The on-line monitoring of dissolved hydrogen gave valuable information about approaching process overload and can be a good complement to the conventional monitoring of volatile fatty acids. Changing process conditions were also reflected in the microbial fingerprint that could be achieved by partitioning in two-phase systems. The investigated methods showed potential for application in increasing our understanding of the anaerobic digestion process as well as for being applicable for monitoring in the complex environment of full-scale anaerobic digestion processes.
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