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Sökning: WFRF:(Björnsson Lovisa)

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41.
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42.
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43.
  • Christensson, Kjell, et al. (författare)
  • Gårdsbiogashandbok
  • 2010
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • En mycket stor del av den totala råvarupotentialen för biogasproduktion finns inom lantbruket. Råvarupotentialen av gödsel i Sverige uppgår till 4 – 6 TWh. Inom lantbruket finns dessutom restprodukter från växtodling samt en stor potential i form av energigrödor (ca 7 TWh) som skulle kunna utnyttjas för biogasproduktion. I enbart restprodukter från lantbruket (gödsel och växtrester) har potentialen beräknats till cirka 8 – 10 TWh. En ökad biogasproduktion inom lantbruket skulle ge stora miljöeffekter då bland annat gödsel, som idag läcker metangas till atmosfären, skulle kunna rötas. När den producerade biogasen ersätter fossilt bränsle uppnås en samlad miljöeffekt som är högst betydande. Denna skrift handlar om biogasanläggningar för lantbruk och sådana anläggningar som ej har omfattande transporter av olika råvaror, som gödsel, avfall mm. Till grund för bokens upplägg ligger en kursplan som Biogas Syd tagit fram för sin kursverksamhet för lantbrukare, rådgivare mfl. Skriften belyser väsentliga moment i planering och byggnation av biogasanläggning, från råvarutillgång och teknik till dimensionering av anläggning, användning av biogas och anläggning av lokala gasnät. Vi har också sett det som angeläget att framhålla den lagstiftning som avser byggnation och drift av biogasanläggning. Investeringskostnader belyses översiktligt, men boken innehåller ej några omfattande ekonomiska kalkyler, eftersom vi tror att sådana beräkningar kräver sin egen avhandling i form av kalkylexempel, baserade på olika förutsättningar. Som avslutning finns ett avsnitt ”Gårdsbaserad biogas – från idé till realitet” där hela processen från analys och förprojektering till tillsyn och kontroll av anläggning under drift beskrivs kortfattat.
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44.
  • Cirne, Dores, et al. (författare)
  • Anaerobic digestion of lipid-rich waste - Effects of lipid concentration
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Renewable Energy. - : Elsevier. - 0960-1481. ; 32:6, s. 965-975
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The influence of lipid concentration on hydrolysis and biomethanation of a lipid-rich (triolein) model waste was evaluated in batch. The effect of increasing the concentration of lipid from 5% to 47% (w/w), based on chemical oxygen demand (COD), was investigated. The methane recovery observed was above 93% for all tests. An initial lag phase of approximately 6-10 days was observed for all tests. The methane production rate observed was similar for tests with 5%, 10% and 18% lipid (w/w, COD basis). For higher amounts of lipid (31%, 40% and 47%), a stronger inhibition was observed. However, the process was able to recover from the inhibition. When the effect of addition of lipase on enzymatic hydrolysis of lipids was studied, the results showed that the higher the enzyme concentration, the more accentuated was the inhibition of methane production. The enzyme appears to enhance the hydrolysis but the intermediates produced caused inhibition of the later steps in the,degradation process. Since the volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles presented similar trends for the different concentrations of lipid tested, the major obstacle to methane production was the long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) formation. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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45.
  • Cirne, Dores, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of bioaugmentation by an anaerobic lipolytic bacterium on anaerobic digestion of lipid-rich waste
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0268-2575. ; 81:11, s. 1745-1752
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effect of bioaugmentation with an anaerobic lipolytic bacterial strain on the anaerobic digestion of restaurant lipid-rich waste was studied in batch experiments with a model waste containing 10% lipids (triolein) under two sets of experimental conditions: (A) methanogenic conditions, and (B) initially acidogenic conditions in the presence of only the lipolytic strain biomass (4 days), followed by methanogenic conditions. The bioaugmenting lipolytic strain, Clostridium lundense (DSM 17049(T)), was isolated from bovine rumen. The highest lipolytic activity was detected at the beginning of the experiments. A higher methane production rate, 27.7 cm(3) CH4(STP) g(-1) VSadded day(-1) (VS, volatile solids) was observed in experiment A with the presence of the bioaugmenting lipolytic strain under methanogenic conditions. The highest initial oleate concentration, 99% of the total oleate contained in the substrate, was observed in the experiments with the bioaugmenting lipolytic strain under treatment A conditions; the levels of palmitate and stearate were also higher until day 15, indicating that the bioaugmentation strategy improved the hydrolysis of the lipid fraction. In general, the results indicated that degradation of the long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) controlled the digestion process. (c) 2006 Society of Chemical Industry.
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46.
  • Cirne, Dores, et al. (författare)
  • Enhanced solubilisation of the residual fraction of municipal solid waste.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Water Science and Technology. - : IWA Publishing. - 0273-1223. ; 57:7, s. 995-1000
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Swedish ordinance banning the landfilling of organic material after 2005 has led to rapid developments towards waste incineration, while biological alternatives have been less studied. In this study, biological alternatives for enhanced methane production from residual municipal waste (the remaining waste fraction after source separation) are investigated. The strategies investigated were recirculation of leachate, recirculation of leachate with aeration, flooding of the solid bed, and enzyme addition after initial leaching in an anaerobic, batch, two-stage digestion process with recirculation of digested leachate. The degree of solubilisation of organic compounds achieved was higher for initial digestion in a two-stage anaerobic digestion system followed by the addition of cellulolytic enzymes than in the other strategies investigated. The overall net solubilisation achieved was 0.48 g COD/g VS(added) corresponding to an increase of 34%. In addition, the digestion time was considerably reduced using this strategy. For the other strategies investigated the solubilisation yields obtained were similar, 0.31 g COD/g VS(added).
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47.
  • Cirne, Dores, et al. (författare)
  • Hydrolysis and microbial community analyses in two-stage anaerobic digestion of energy crops
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Microbiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1364-5072. ; 103:3, s. 516-527
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: The roles of the diverse populations of micro-organisms responsible for biodegradation of organic matter to form methane and carbon dioxide are rudimentarily understood. To expand the knowledge on links between microbial communities and the rate limiting, hydrolytic stage of two-stage biogas production from energy crops, this study was performed. Methods and Results: The process performance. and microbial communities (as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization) in two separate two-stage batch digestions of sugar beets and grass/clover were studied. The microbial populations developed in the hydrolytic stage of anaerobic digestion of beets and grass/clover showed very few similarities, despite that the hydrolysis dynamics were similar. In both substrates, the solubilization of organic material was rapid for the first 10 days and accompanied by a build-up of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and lactate. Between days 10 and 15, VFA and lactate concentrations decreased, as did the solubilization rates. For both substrates, Archaea started to appear in the hydrolytic stage between days 10 and 15, and the fraction of Bacteria decreased. The major bacterial group detected in the leachate fraction for beets was Alphaproteobacteria, whereas for grass/clover it was Firmicutes. The number of cells that bound to probes specifically targeting bacteria with cellulolytic activity was higher in the digestion of grass than in the digestion of beet. Conclusions: This study allowed the identification of the general bacterial groups involved, and the identification of a clear shift in the microbial population when hydrolysis rate became limiting for each of the substrates investigated. Significance and Impact of the Study: The findings from this study could be considered as a first step towards the development of strategies to stimulate hydrolysis further and ultimately increasing the methane production rates and yields from reactor-based digestion of these substrates.
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48.
  • Crocetti, Greg, et al. (författare)
  • An update and optimisation of oligonucleotide probes targeting methanogenic Archaea for use in fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH)
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Microbiological Methods. - : Elsevier. - 1872-8359. ; 65:1, s. 194-201
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) is a common and popular method used to investigate microbial populations in natural and engineered environments. DNA oligonucleoticle probes require accurate determination of the optimal experimental conditions for their use in FISH Oligonucleotides targeting the rRNA of methanogenic Archaea at various taxonomic levels have previously been published, although when applied in FISH, no optimisation data has been presented In this study, 3000 Euryarchaeota 16S rRNA gene sequences were phylogenetically analysed and previously published oligonucleoticles were evaluated for target group accuracy. Where necessary, modifications were introduced or new probes were designed. The updated set of probes was optimised for use in FISH for a more accurate detection of methanogenic Archaea. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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49.
  • Gissen, Charlott, et al. (författare)
  • Comparing energy crops for biogas production Yields, energy input and costs in cultivation using digestate and mineral fertilisation
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BIOMASS & BIOENERGY. - : Elsevier. - 1873-2909 .- 0961-9534. ; 64, s. 199-210
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Analyses of six crops grown in southern Sweden for biogas production (hemp, sugar beet, maize, triticale, grass/clover ley, winter wheat) showed varying performance regarding methane yield per hectare and energy input and costs in the production and supply of crops as biogas feedstock. The highest biomass and biogas yield was observed for sugar beet. Crops with lower risk of negative environmental impact in cultivation, such as ley and hemp, produced less than half the methane energy yield per hectare. Triticale, also having less risk of negative environmental impact, gave an energy yield similar to that of winter wheat grain and maize. Replacing most of the mineral fertiliser with biogas digestate did not, with the exception for hemp, influence crop yields per hectare, but energy input in cultivation decreased by on average 34% for the six crops tested. For hemp and sugar beet the biogas feedstock costs for the freshly harvested crop per GJ methane were close to that of the economic reference crop, winter wheat grain. For maize, beet tops and first and second year ley, the feedstock costs were lower, and for triticale much lower. When ensiled crops were used for biogas the feedstock costs increased and only those of triticale silage remained slightly lower than the cost of dried wheat grain. However, all feedstock costs were so high that profitable biogas production based solely on ensiled crops would be difficult to achieve at present Swedish biogas sales prices. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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50.
  • Haus, Sylvia, et al. (författare)
  • Lignocellulosic Ethanol in a Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Obligation System—A Case Study of Swedish Sawdust Based-Ethanol Production
  • Ingår i: Energies. - : MDPI AG. - 1996-1073. ; 13:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction obligation system has been implemented in the Swedish road transport sector to promote the use of biofuels. For transportation fuel suppliers to fulfil this obligation, the volume of biofuel required decreases with decreasing life cycle GHG emission for the biofuel, linking lower GHG emission to higher economic value. The aim of this study was to investigate how the economic competitiveness of a Swedish emerging lignocellulosic-based ethanol production system would be influenced by the reduction obligation. The life cycle GHG emission for sawdust-based ethanol was calculated by applying the method advocated in the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED II). The saving in GHG emissions, compared with fossil liquid transportation fuels, was 93% for a potential commercial production system in southern Sweden. This, in turn, will increase the competitiveness of sawdust-based ethanol compared to the mainly crop-based ethanol currently used in the Swedish biofuel system, which has an average GHG emission saving of 68%, and will allow for an almost 40% higher price of sawdust-based ethanol, compared to the current price of ethanol at point of import. In a future developed, large-scale market of advanced ethanol, today’s GHG emission reduction obligation system in Sweden seems to afford sufficient economic advantage to make lignocellulosic ethanol economically viable. However, in a short-term perspective, emerging lignocellulosic-based ethanol production systems are burdened with economic risks and therefore need additional economic incentives to make a market introduction possible.
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