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Sökning: WFRF:(Blixt A)

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  • Föregående 12[3]4Nästa
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21.
  • Green, Jonathan M. H., et al. (författare)
  • Research priorities for managing the impacts and dependencies of business upon food, energy, water and the environment
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Sustainability Science. - 1862-4065 .- 1862-4057. ; 12:2, s. 319-331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Delivering access to sufficient food, energy and water resources to ensure human wellbeing is a major concern for governments worldwide. However, it is crucial to account for the 'nexus' of interactions between these natural resources and the consequent implications for human wellbeing. The private sector has a critical role in driving positive change towards more sustainable nexus management and could reap considerable benefits from collaboration with researchers to devise solutions to some of the foremost sustainability challenges of today. Yet opportunities are missed because the private sector is rarely involved in the formulation of deliverable research priorities. We convened senior research scientists and influential business leaders to collaboratively identify the top forty questions that, if answered, would best help companies understand and manage their food-energy-water-environment nexus dependencies and impacts. Codification of the top order nexus themes highlighted research priorities around development of pragmatic yet credible tools that allow businesses to incorporate nexus interactions into their decision-making; demonstration of the business case for more sustainable nexus management; identification of the most effective levers for behaviour change; and understanding incentives or circumstances that allow individuals and businesses to take a leadership stance. Greater investment in the complex but productive relations between the private sector and research community will create deeper and more meaningful collaboration and cooperation.
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22.
  • Haanes, Kristian A., et al. (författare)
  • Exploration of purinergic receptors as potential anti-migraine targets using established pre-clinical migraine models
  • Ingår i: Cephalalgia. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0333-1024. ; 39:11, s. 1421-1434
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The current understanding of mechanisms behind migraine pain has been greatly enhanced with the recent therapies targeting calcitonin gene-related peptide and its receptor. The clinical efficacy of calcitonin gene-related peptide-blocking drugs indicates that, at least in a considerable proportion of patients, calcitonin gene-related peptide is a key molecule in migraine pain. There are several receptors and molecular pathways that can affect the release of and response to calcitonin gene-related peptide. One of these could be purinergic receptors that are involved in nociception, but these are greatly understudied with respect to migraine. Objective: We aimed to explore purinergic receptors as potential anti-migraine targets. Methods: We used the human middle meningeal artery as a proxy for the trigeminal system to screen for possible anti-migraine candidates. The human findings were followed by intravital microscopy and calcitonin gene-related peptide release measurements in rodents. Results: We show that the purinergic P2Y13 receptor fulfills all the features of a potential anti-migraine target. The P2Y13 receptor is expressed in both the human trigeminal ganglion and middle meningeal artery and activation of this receptor causes: a) middle meningeal artery contraction in vitro; b) reduced dural artery dilation following periarterial electrical stimulation in vivo and c) a reduction of CGRP release from both the dura and the trigeminal ganglion in situ. Furthermore, we show that P2X3 receptor activation of the trigeminal ganglion causes calcitonin gene-related peptide release and middle meningeal artery dilation. Conclusion: Both an agonist directed at the P2Y13 receptor and an antagonist of the P2X3 receptor seem to be viable potential anti-migraine therapies.
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24.
  • Lehmann, O. J., et al. (författare)
  • Novel anterior segment phenotypes resulting from forkhead gene alterations: Evidence for cross-species conservation of function
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. - 0146-0404. ; 44:6, s. 2627-2633
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE. Mutations in murine and human Versions of an ancestrally related gene usually result in similar phenotypes. However, interspecics differences exist, and in the case of two forkhead transcription factor genes (FOXC1 and FOXC2), these differences include corneal or anterior segment phenotypes, respectively. This study was undertaken to determine whether such discrepancies provide an opportunity for identifying novel human-murine ocular phenotypes. METHODS. Four pedigrees with early-onset glaucoma phenotypes secondary to segmental chromosomal duplications or deletions encompassing FOXC1 and 18 individuals from 9 FOXC2 mutation pedigrees underwent detailed ocular phenotyping. Subsequently, mice with mutations in Foxc1 or a related forkhead gene, Foxe3, were assessed for features of the human phenotypes. RESULTS. A significant increase in central corneal thickness was present in affected individuals from the segmental duplication pedigrees compared with their unaffected relatives (mean increase 13%, maximum 35%, P < 0.05). Alterations in corneal thickness were present in mice heterozygous and homozygous for Foxe3 mutations but neither in Foxc1 heterozygotes nor the small human segmental deletion pedigree. Mutations in FOXC2 resulted in ocular anterior segment anomalies. These were more severe and prevalent with mutations involving the forkhead domain. CONCLUSIONS. Normal corneal development is dependent on the precise dose and levels of activity of certain forkhead transcription factors. The altered corneal thickness attributable to increased forkhead gene dosage is particularly important, because it may affect the clinical management of certain glaucoma subtypes and lead to excessive treatment. The FOXC1 and Foxe3 data, taken together with the novel ocular phenotypes of FOXC2 mutations, highlight the remarkable cross-species conservation of function among forkhead genes.
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27.
  • Persson, Nina, et al. (författare)
  • Epitope mapping of a new anti-Tn antibody detecting gastric cancer cells
  • Ingår i: Glycobiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0959-6658. ; 27:7, s. 635-645
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Here, we introduce a novel scFv antibody, G2-D11, specific for two adjacent Tn-antigens (GalNAc- Ser/Thr) binding equally to three dimeric forms of the epitope, Ser-Thr, Thr-Thr and Thr-Ser. Compared to other anti-Tn reagents, the binding of G2-D11 is minimally influenced by the peptide structure, which indicates a high degree of carbohydrate epitope dominance and a low influence from the protein backbone. With a high affinity (KDapp = 1.3 × 10-8 M) and no cross-reactivity to either sialyl-Tn epitope or blood group A antigens, scFv G2-D11 is an excellent candidate for a well-defined anti-Tn-antigen reagent. Detailed immunohistochemical evaluation of tissue sections from a cohort of 80 patients with gastric carcinoma showed in all cases positive tumor cells. The observed staining was localized to the cytoplasm and in some cases to the membrane, whereas the surrounding tissue was completely negative demonstrating the usefulness of the novel Tn-antigen binding antibody.
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29.
  • Stowell, Sean R, et al. (författare)
  • Galectins-1, -2 and -3 exhibit differential recognition of sialylated glycans and blood group antigens
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : ASBMB. - 1083-351X. ; 283:15, s. 10109-10123
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human galectins have functionally divergent roles, although most of the members of the galectin family bind weakly to the simple disaccharide lactose (Galss1-4Glc). To assess galectin-glycan interactions in more detail, we explored the binding of several important galectins (Gal-1, Gal-2, and Gal-3) on a glycan microarray containing hundreds of structurally diverse glycans. All three galectins exhibited unique glycan binding characteristics. Only Gal-1 and Gal-2 bound complex-type N-glycans and extended core 1 O-glycans with high affinity, while Gal-2 and Gal-3, but not Gal-1, bound A and B blood group antigens. Gal-2 failed to recognize any sialylated glycans regardless of linkage, whereas Gal-1 and Gal-3 bound a2-3, but not a2-6 sialylated glycans. All galectins showed higher binding to sulfated glycans relative to unsulfated ones. Each galectin exhibited higher binding for glycans with poly-N-acetyllactosamine (PL) sequences (Galss1-4GlcNAc)n when compared to N-acetyllactosamine (Galss1-4GlcNAc) in the microarray. However, only Gal-3 preferred PL when assessed by solution-based surface plasmon resonance. Removal of the terminal galactose residue in PL abrogated its recognition by Gal-1 and Gal-2 while having no substantial effect on Gal-3 recognition, demonstrating that Gal-3 recognizes internal N-acetyllactosamine units. These results provide novel insights into the functional constraints of glycan recognition by each galectin and underscore the basis for differences in biological activity.
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