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21.
  • Johansson, Ida, et al. (författare)
  • High-resolution genomic profiling of male breast cancer reveals differences hidden behind the similarities with female breast cancer
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - Springer. - 1573-7217. ; 129:3, s. 747-760
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Male breast cancer (MBC) is extremely rare and poorly characterized on the molecular level. Using high-resolution genomic data, we aimed to characterize MBC by genomic imbalances and to compare it with female breast cancer (FBC), and further to investigate whether the genomic profiles hold any prognostic information. Fifty-six fresh frozen MBC tumors were analyzed using high-resolution tiling BAC arrays. Significant regions in common between cases were assessed using Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer (GISTIC) analysis. A publicly available genomic data set of 359 FBC tumors was used for reference purposes. The data revealed a broad pattern of aberrations, confirming that MBC is a heterogeneous tumor type. Genomic gains were more common in MBC than in FBC and often involved whole chromosome arms, while losses of genomic material were less frequent. The most common aberrations were similar between the genders, but high-level amplifications were more common in FBC. We identified two genomic subgroups among MBCs; male-complex and male-simple. The male-complex subgroup displayed striking similarities with the previously reported luminal-complex FBC subgroup, while the male-simple subgroup seems to represent a new subgroup of breast cancer occurring only in men. There are many similarities between FBC and MBC with respect to genomic imbalances, but there are also distinct differences as revealed by high-resolution genomic profiling. MBC can be divided into two comprehensive genomic subgroups, which may be of prognostic value. The male-simple subgroup appears notably different from any genomic subgroup so far defined in FBC.
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22.
  • Kainu, Tommi, et al. (författare)
  • Detection of Germline BRCA1 Mutations in Breast Cancer Patients by Quantitative Messenger RNA in situ Hybridization
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research Inc.. - 1538-7445. ; s. 2912-2915
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) may account for one half of all familial breast cancers. Because of the wide spectrum of different germline mutations, identification of BRCA1 mutation carriers using current techniques is laborious and difficult. The majority of the identified mutations, however, lead to aberrant expression of the gene product in tumor tissue, potentially allowing the detection of BRCA1-linked breast cancers using simple histochemical techniques. We performed quantitative mRNA in situ hybridization analysis on archival paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 25 patients with characterized germline BRCA1 mutations or linkage and from 29 patients with sporadic breast cancers. BRCA1 mRNA levels were invariably low in tumors from BRCA1 mutation carriers. Normal breast epithelium surrounding the BRCA1 tumors showed higher mRNA levels than the tumor tissue, indicating that the low mRNA levels were due to somatic inactivation of the wild-type BRCA1 allele in the tumor tissue. The expression levels in the sporadic tumors were, on average, six times higher than in the BRCA1 tumors (P < 0.0001). The difference allowed identification of BRCA1-mutated and sporadic tumors with more than 95% specificity and sensitivity. We conclude that the analysis of BRCA1 gene expression by mRNA in situ hybridization may be useful in screening for patients with BRCA1-linked breast cancer.
23.
  • Karppinen, S. -M., et al. (författare)
  • Nordic collaborative study of the BARD1 Cys557Ser allele in 3956 patients with cancer: enrichment in familial BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation-negative breast cancer but not in other malignancies
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - BMJ Publishing Group. - 0022-2593. ; 43:11, s. 856-862
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: BARD1 was originally identified as a BRCA1- interacting protein but has also been described in tumour-suppressive functions independent of BRCA1. Several studies have indicated that the BARD1 gene is a potential target for germline changes predisposing to breast and ovarian cancer. The C- terminal Cys557Ser change has previously been uncovered to associate with an increased risk of breast cancer and was recently shown to result in defective apoptotic activities. Aim and methods: Conformation- sensitive gel electrophoresis, minisequencing, TaqMan assays, denaturing high- performance liquid chromatography analysis and DNA sequencing were used to investigate the prevalence of the Cys557Ser allele in a large Nordic case - control study cohort consisting of 2906 patients with breast or ovarian cancer, 734 with prostate cancer, 188 with colorectal cancer, 128 men with breast cancer, and 3591 controls from Finland, Iceland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Results: The frequency of the BARD1 Cys557Ser variant seemed to increase among patients from families with breast or ovarian cancer lacking BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations: a significant difference was obtained compared with controls ( 6.8% v 2.7%; p < 0.001; odds ratio ( OR) 2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7 to 4.0) and with patients from BRCA1/ BRCA2 mutation- positive families ( 6.8% v 2.2%; p = 0.01; OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.2 to 8.3). In contrast, no major association with male breast, ovarian, colorectal or prostate cancer was observed. Additionally, a novel BARD1 allele resulting in Ser558Pro was identified in familial breast cancer cases. Conclusion: These results provide further evidence that BARD1 Cys557Ser confers a slightly increased risk of breast cancer in women.
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24.
  • Krop, I, et al. (författare)
  • Lack of HIN-1 methylation in BRCAl-linked and "BRCA1-like" breast tumors
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research Inc.. - 1538-7445. ; 63:9, s. 2024-2027
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We recently identified a candidate tumor suppressor gene, HIN-1, that is silenced due to methylation in the majority of sporadic breast carcinomas and is localized to 5q33-qter, an area frequently lost in BRCA1 tumors and thought to harbor a BRCA1 modifier gene. To establish whether germ-line mutations in HIN-1 may influence breast cancer risk, we sequenced the HIN-1 coding region in 10 familial breast cancer patients with positive logarithm of the odds scores of at least one of the markers flanking HIN-1. We also sequenced the HIN-1 coding region in 15 BRCA1 and 35 sporadic breast tumors to determine whether HIN-1 is the target of the frequent 5q loss in BRCA1 tumors. No sequence alterations were found in any of the cases analyzed. However, analysis of HIN-1 promoter methylation status revealed that in striking contrast to sporadic cases, there is a nearly complete lack of HIN-1 methylation in BRCA1 tumors (P < 0.0001). Sporadic breast tumors with a "BRCA1-like" histopathological phenotype also demonstrated significantly lower frequency of HIN-1 promoter methylation (P = 0.01) compared with other cancer types, and there was also a difference among tumors based on their estrogen receptor and HER2 status (P = 0.006), suggesting that HIN-1 methylation patterns are associated with specific breast cancer subtypes.
25.
  • Kuchenbaecker, KB, et al. (författare)
  • Associations of common breast cancer susceptibility alleles with risk of breast cancer subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Breast cancer research : BCR. - 1465-542X. ; 16:6, s. 3416
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: More than 70 common alleles are known to be involved in breast cancer (BC) susceptibility, and several exhibit significant heterogeneity in their associations with different BC subtypes. Although there are differences in the association patterns between BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and the general population for several loci, no study has comprehensively evaluated the associations of all known BC susceptibility alleles with risk of BC subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers.METHODS: We used data from 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 carriers to analyze the associations between approximately 200,000 genetic variants on the iCOGS array and risk of BC subtypes defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and triple-negative- (TN) status; morphologic subtypes; histological grade; and nodal involvement.RESULTS: The estimated BC hazard ratios (HRs) for the 74 known BC alleles in BRCA1 carriers exhibited moderate correlations with the corresponding odds ratios from the general population. However, their associations with ER-positive BC in BRCA1 carriers were more consistent with the ER-positive associations in the general population (intraclass correlation (ICC) = 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.45 to 0.74), and the same was true when considering ER-negative associations in both groups (ICC = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.72). Similarly, there was strong correlation between the ER-positive associations for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers (ICC = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52 to 0.78), whereas ER-positive associations in any one of the groups were generally inconsistent with ER-negative associations in any of the others. After stratifying by ER status in mutation carriers, additional significant associations were observed. Several previously unreported variants exhibited associations at P <10(-6) in the analyses by PR status, HER2 status, TN phenotype, morphologic subtypes, histological grade and nodal involvement.CONCLUSIONS: Differences in associations of common BC susceptibility alleles between BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers and the general population are explained to a large extent by differences in the prevalence of ER-positive and ER-negative tumors. Estimates of the risks associated with these variants based on population-based studies are likely to be applicable to mutation carriers after taking ER status into account, which has implications for risk prediction.
26.
  • Kuchinskaya, Ekaterina, et al. (författare)
  • Array-CGH reveals hidden gene dose changes in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and a normal or failed karyotype by G-banding
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Haematology. - Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0007-1048. ; 140:5, s. 572-577
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A tiling path 33K BAC array was used to study 28 children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) who had normal or failed G-banded karyotypes. Twenty-two patients (79%) had a total of 135 copy number alterations (CNA) (69 gains and 66 losses); most of these patients showed CNA that were below the resolution of G-banding. Molecular cytogenetic and array comparative genomic hybridization results enabled the division of B-precursor ALL patients into five groups: high hyperdiploidy, intrachromosomal amplification of 21q, ETV6/RUNX1 rearrangement, others and no CNA. Apart from a shared deletion of 9p21.3, T-ALL patients had additional small CNA, with no region in common.
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29.
  • Lee, Jia-Jing, et al. (författare)
  • Array-CGH identifies cyclin D1 and UBCH10 amplicons in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Endocrine-Related Cancer. - Society for Endocrinology. - 1479-6821. ; 15:3, s. 801-815
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare but highly aggressive disease with largely unexplained etiology and molecular pathogenesis. In this study, we analyzed genome-wide copy number changes, BRAF (V-raf sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) mutations, and p16 and cyclin D1 expressions in a panel of ATC primary tumors. Three ATCs harbored the common BRAF mutation V600E. Using array-comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH), several distinct recurrent copy number alterations were revealed including gains in 16p11.2, 20q11.2, and 20q13.12. Subsequent fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed recurrent locus gain of UBCH10 in 20q13.12 and Cyclin D1 (CCND1) in 11q13. The detection of a homozygous loss encompassing the CDKN2A locus in 9p21.3 motivated the examination of p16 protein expression, which was undetectable in 24/27 ATCs (89%). Based on the frequent gain in 11q13 (41%; n=11), the role of CCND1 was further investigated. Expression of cyclin D1 protein was observed at varying levels in 18/27 ATCs (67%). The effect of CCND1 on thyroid cell proliferation was assessed in vitro in ATC cells by means of siRNA and in thyroid cells after CCND1 transfection. In summary, the recurrent chromosomal copy number changes and molecular alterations identified in this study may provide an insight into the pathogenesis and development of ATC.
30.
  • Li, Jingmei, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants in a large, unselected breast cancer cohort
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 144:5, s. 1195-1204
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2-driven tumors may benefit from targeted therapy. It is not clear whether current BRCA screening guidelines are effective at identifying these patients. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of inherited BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants in a large, clinically representative breast cancer cohort and to estimate the proportion of BRCA1/2 carriers not detected by selectively screening individuals with the highest probability of being carriers according to current clinical guidelines. The study included 5,122 unselected Swedish breast cancer patients diagnosed from 2001 to 2008. Target sequence enrichment (48.48 Fluidigm Access Arrays) and sequencing were performed (Illumina Hi-Seq 2,500 instrument, v4 chemistry). Differences in patient and tumor characteristics of BRCA1/2 carriers who were already identified as part of clinical BRCA1/2 testing routines and additional BRCA1/2 carriers found by sequencing the entire study population were compared using logistic regression models. Ninety-two of 5,099 patients with valid variant calls were identified as BRCA1/2 carriers by screening all study participants (1.8%). Only 416 study participants (8.2%) were screened as part of clinical practice, but this identified 35 out of 92 carriers (38.0%). Clinically identified carriers were younger, less likely postmenopausal and more likely to be associated with familiar ovarian cancer compared to the additional carriers identified by screening all patients. More BRCA2 (34/42, 81.0%) than BRCA1 carriers (23/50, 46%) were missed by clinical screening. In conclusion, BRCA1/2 mutation prevalence in unselected breast cancer patients was 1.8%. Six in ten BRCA carriers were not detected by selective clinical screening of individuals.
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