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  • Tirkkonen, M, et al. (författare)
  • Somatic genetic alterations in BRCA2-associated and sporadic male breast cancer
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 1045-2257. ; 24:1, s. 56-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The genetic changes underlying the development and progression of male breast cancer are poorly understood. Germline BRCA2 mutations account for a significant part of male breast cancer, but the majority of patients lack a known inherited predisposition. We recently demonstrated that the progression of breast cancer in female carriers of a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation follows specific genetic pathways, distinct from each other and from sporadic breast cancer. In the present study, we performed a genome-wide survey by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) of somatic genetic aberrations in 26 male breast cancers, including five tumors from BRCA2 mutation carriers. BRCA2 tumors exhibited a significantly higher number of chromosomal aberrations than sporadic tumors. The most common alterations in sporadic male breast cancer were +1q (38%), +8q (33%), +17q (33%), -13q (29%), and -8p (24%). In tumors from BRCA2 mutation carriers, the five most common genetic changes were +8q (100%), +20q (100%), +17q (80%), -13q (80%), and -6q (60%). The CGH results in these two groups of male breast cancers are almost identical to those identified in the corresponding sporadic and BRCA2-associated female breast cancers. The results suggest that despite substantial hormonal differences between females and males, similar genetic changes are selected for during tumor progression. Furthermore, the presence of a highly penetrant germline BRCA2 mutation apparently leads to a characteristic somatic tumor progression pathway, again shared between affected male and female mutation carriers.
  • Vallon-Christersson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Cross comparison and prognostic assessment of breast cancer multigene signatures in a large population-based contemporary clinical series
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multigene expression signatures provide a molecular subdivision of early breast cancer associated with patient outcome. A gap remains in the validation of such signatures in clinical treatment groups of patients within population-based cohorts of unselected primary breast cancer representing contemporary disease stages and current treatments. A cohort of 3520 resectable breast cancers with RNA sequencing data included in the population-based SCAN-B initiative (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT02306096) were selected from a healthcare background population of 8587 patients diagnosed within the years 2010-2015. RNA profiles were classified according to 19 reported gene signatures including both gene expression subtypes (e.g. PAM50, IC10, CIT) and risk predictors (e.g. Oncotype DX, 70-gene, ROR). Classifications were analyzed in nine adjuvant clinical assessment groups: TNBC-ACT (adjuvant chemotherapy, n = 239), TNBC-untreated (n = 82), HER2+/ER- with anti-HER2+ ACT treatment (n = 110), HER2+/ER+ with anti-HER2 + ACT + endocrine treatment (n = 239), ER+/HER2-/LN- with endocrine treatment (n = 1113), ER+/HER2-/LN- with endocrine + ACT treatment (n = 243), ER+/HER2-/LN+ with endocrine treatment (n = 423), ER+/HER2-/LN+ with endocrine + ACT treatment (n = 433), and ER+/HER2-/LN- untreated (n = 200). Gene signature classification (e.g., proportion low-, high-risk) was generally well aligned with stratification based on current immunohistochemistry-based clinical practice. Most signatures did not provide any further risk stratification in TNBC and HER2+/ER- disease. Risk classifier agreement (low-, medium/intermediate-, high-risk groups) in ER+ assessment groups was on average 50-60% with occasional pair-wise comparisons having <30% agreement. Disregarding the intermediate-risk groups, the exact agreement between low- and high-risk groups was on average ~80-95%, for risk prediction signatures across all assessment groups. Outcome analyses were restricted to assessment groups of TNBC-ACT and endocrine treated ER+/HER2-/LN- and ER+/HER2-/LN+ cases. For ER+/HER2- disease, gene signatures appear to contribute additional prognostic value even at a relatively short follow-up time. Less apparent prognostic value was observed in the other groups for the tested signatures. The current study supports the usage of gene expression signatures in specific clinical treatment groups within population-based breast cancer. It also stresses the need of further development to reach higher consensus in individual patient classifications, especially for intermediate-risk patients, and the targeting of patients where current gene signatures and prognostic variables provide little support in clinical decision-making.
  • Vallon-Christersson, J, et al. (författare)
  • Functional analysis of BRCA1 C-terminal missense mutations identified in breast and ovarian cancer families
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906. ; 10:4, s. 60-353
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Germline mutations in the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 are responsible for the majority of cases involving hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. Whereas all truncating mutations are considered as functionally deleterious, most of the missense variants identified to date cannot be readily distinguished as either disease-associated mutations or benign polymorphisms. The C-terminal domain of BRCA1 displays an intrinsic transactivation activity, and mutations linked to disease predisposition have been shown to confer loss of such activity in yeast and mammalian cells. In an attempt to clarify the functional importance of the BRCA1 C-terminus as a transcription activator in cancer predisposition, we have characterized the effect of C-terminal germline variants identified in Scandinavian breast and ovarian cancer families. Missense variants A1669S, C1697R, R1699W, R1699Q, A1708E, S1715R and G1738E and a truncating mutation, W1837X, were characterized using yeast- and mammalian-based transcription assays. In addition, four additional missense variants (V1665M, D1692N, S1715N and D1733G) and one in-frame deletion (V1688del) were included in the study. Our findings demonstrate that transactivation activity may reflect a tumor-suppressing function of BRCA1 and further support the role of BRCA1 missense mutations in disease predisposition. We also report a discrepancy between results from yeast- and mammalian-based assays, indicating that it may not be possible to unambiguously characterize variants with the yeast assay alone. We show that transcription-based assays can aid in the characterization of deleterious mutations in the C-terminal part of BRCA1 and may form the basis of a functional assay.
  • Vallon-Christersson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Non-coding antisense transcription detected by conventional and single-stranded cDNA microarray
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: BMC Genomics. - BMC Genomics. - 1471-2164. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Recent studies revealed that many mammalian protein- coding genes also transcribe their complementary strands. This phenomenon raises questions regarding the validity of data obtained from double-stranded cDNA microarrays since hybridization to both strands may occur. Here, we wanted to analyze experimentally the incidence of antisense transcription in human cells and to estimate their influence on protein coding expression patterns obtained by double-stranded microarrays. Therefore, we profiled transcription of sense and antisense independently by using strand-specific cDNA microarrays. Results: Up to 88% of expressed protein coding loci displayed concurrent expression from the complementary strand. Antisense transcription is cell specific and showed a strong tendency to be positively correlated to the expression of the sense counterparts. Even if their expression is widespread, detected antisense signals seem to have a limited distorting effect on sense profiles obtained with double-stranded probes. Conclusion: Antisense transcription in humans can be far more common than previously estimated. However, it has limited influence on expression profiles obtained with conventional cDNA probes. This can be explained by a biological phenomena and a bias of the technique: a) a co-ordinate sense and antisense expression variation and b) a bias for sense-hybridization to occur with more efficiency, presumably due to variable exonic overlap between antisense transcripts.
  • van den Berg, J, et al. (författare)
  • Allelic loss at chromosome 13q12-q13 is associated with poor prognosis in familial and sporadic breast cancer
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0007-0920. ; 74:10, s. 1615-1619
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was analysed in 84 primary tumours from sporadic, familial and hereditary breast cancer using five microsatellite markers spanning the chromosomal region 13q12-q13 which harbours the BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility gene, and using one other marker located within the RBI tumour-suppressor gene at 13q14. LOH at the BRCA2 region was found in 34% and at RBI in 27% of the tumours. Selective LOH at BRCA2 occurred in 7% of the tumours, whereas selective LOH at RBI was observed in another 7%. Moreover, a few tumours demonstrated a restricted deletion pattern, suggesting the presence of additional tumour-suppressor genes both proximal and distal of BRCA2. LOH at BRCA2 was significantly correlated to high S-phase values, low oestrogen and progesterone receptor content and DNA non-diploidy. LOH at BRCA2 was also associated, albeit non-significantly, with large tumour size and the ductal and medullar histological types. No correlation was found with lymph node status, patient age or a family history of breast cancer. A highly significant and independent correlation existed between LOH at BRCA2 and early recurrence and death. LOH at RBI was not associated with the above mentioned factors or prognosis. The present study does not provide conclusive evidence that BRCA2 is the sole target for deletions at 13q12-q13 in breast tumours. However, the results suggest that inactivation of one or several tumour-suppressor genes in the 13q12-q13 region confer a strong tumour growth potential and poor prognosis in both familial and sporadic breast cancer.
  • Veerla, Srinivas, et al. (författare)
  • MiRNA expression in urothelial carcinomas: Important roles of miR-10a, miR-222, miR-125b, miR-7 and miR-452 for tumor stage and metastasis, and frequent homozygous losses of miR-31.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 124, s. 2236-2242
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We analyzed 34 cases of urothelial carcinomas by miRNA, mRNA and genomic profiling. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using expression information for 300 miRNAs produced 3 major clusters of tumors corresponding to Ta, T1 and T2-T3 tumors, respectively. A subsequent SAM analysis identified 51 miRNAs that discriminated the 3 pathological subtypes. A score based on the expression levels of the 51 miRNAs, identified muscle invasive tumors with high precision and sensitivity. MiRNAs showing high expression in muscle invasive tumors included miR-222 and miR-125b and in Ta tumors miR-10a. A miRNA signature for FGFR3 mutated cases was also identified with miR-7 as an important member. MiR-31, located in 9p21, was found to be homozygously deleted in 3 cases and miR-452 and miR-452* were shown to be over expressed in node positive tumors. In addition, these latter miRNAs were shown to be excellent prognostic markers for death by disease as outcome. The presented data shows that pathological subtypes of urothelial carcinoma show distinct miRNA gene expression signatures. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • Wadt, Karin A W, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular characterization of melanoma cases in denmark suspected of genetic predisposition.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 10:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Both environmental and host factors influence risk of cutaneous melanoma (CM), and worldwide, the incidence varies depending on constitutional determinants of skin type and pigmentation, latitude, and patterns of sun exposure. We performed genetic analysis of CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, MC1R, and MITFp.E318K in Danish high-risk melanoma cases and found CDKN2A germline mutations in 11.3% of CM families with three or more affected individuals, including four previously undescribed mutations. Rare mutations were also seen in CDK4 and BAP1, while MC1R variants were common, occurring at more than twice the frequency compared to Danish controls. The MITF p.E318K variant similarly occurred at an approximately three-fold higher frequency in melanoma cases than controls. To conclude, we propose that mutation screening of CDKN2A and CDK4 in Denmark should predominantly be performed in families with at least 3 cases of CM. In addition, we recommend that testing of BAP1 should not be conducted routinely in CM families but should be reserved for families with CM and uveal melanoma, or mesothelioma.
  • Wagenius, M, et al. (författare)
  • CHEK2*1100delC is not an important high-risk gene in families with hereditary prostate cancer in southern Sweden
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - Taylor & Francis. - 0036-5599. ; 40:1, s. 23-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. CHEK2* 1100delC is a frame-shifting germ-line mutation which abolishes the function of cell-cycle-checkpoint kinase 2 (chk2) and hence impairs the cells' response to DNA damage. This variant occurs in approximate to 1% of the general Western population but has been reported to be more common among patients with breast and prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of CHEK2* 1100delC as a possible high-risk gene for hereditary prostate cancer in the population of southern Sweden. Material and methods. We screened for the CHEK2* 1100delC variant in 419 men diagnosed with prostate cancer in southern Sweden, 145 of whom were sporadic cases that were divided into two subgroups depending on whether they were diagnosed before ( n = 64) or after ( n = 81) the age of 55 years. A further 126 men were classified as familial prostate cancer cases and 148 as hereditary prostate cancer cases. The control group consisted of 305 military conscripts aged approximate to 18 years ( range 18 - 21 years). Results. The CHEK2* 1100delC variant was found in 1.2% of the cases ( sporadic: 0.7%; familial: 1.6%; hereditary: 1.4%) and in 1.0% of the controls. Conclusion. The CHEK2 1100delC mutation is not a clinically important high-risk gene for hereditary prostate cancer susceptibility in the population of southern Sweden.
  • Waldemarson, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Proteomic analysis of breast tumors confirms the mRNA intrinsic molecular subtypes using different classifiers : A large-scale analysis of fresh frozen tissue samples
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - BioMed Central. - 1465-5411. ; 18:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease that is usually characterized by histological parameters such as tumor size, cellular arrangements/rearrangments, necrosis, nuclear grade and the mitotic index, leading to a set of around twenty subtypes. Together with clinical markers such as hormone receptor status, this classification has considerable prognostic value but there is a large variation in patient response to therapy. Gene expression profiling has provided molecular profiles characteristic of distinct subtypes of breast cancer that reflect the divergent cellular origins and degree of progression. Methods: Here we present a large-scale proteomic and transcriptomic profiling study of 477 sporadic and hereditary breast cancer tumors with matching mRNA expression analysis. Unsupervised hierarchal clustering was performed and selected proteins from large-scale tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis were transferred into a highly multiplexed targeted selected reaction monitoring assay to classify tumors using a hierarchal cluster and support vector machine with leave one out cross-validation. Results: The subgroups formed upon unsupervised clustering agree very well with groups found at transcriptional level; however, the classifiers (genes or their respective protein products) differ almost entirely between the two datasets. In-depth analysis shows clear differences in pathways unique to each type, which may lie behind their different clinical outcomes. Targeted mass spectrometry analysis and supervised clustering correlate very well with subgroups determined by RNA classification and show convincing agreement with clinical parameters. Conclusions: This work demonstrates the merits of protein expression profiling for breast cancer stratification. These findings have important implications for the use of genomics and expression analysis for the prediction of protein expression, such as receptor status and drug target expression. The highly multiplexed MS assay is easily implemented in standard clinical chemistry practice, allowing rapid and cheap characterization of tumor tissue suitable for directing the choice of treatment.
  • Worley, T, et al. (författare)
  • A naturally occurring allele of BRCA1 coding for a temperature-sensitive mutant protein
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Cancer Biology & Therapy. - Landes Bioscience. - 1538-4047. ; 1:5, s. 497-501
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent evidence suggests that the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene product BRCA1 is involved in at least two fundamental cellular processes: transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. However, the mechanism of action of BRCA1 in either of these processes is still unknown. Here, we report the characterization of a disease-predisposing allele of BRCA1, identified in a family with several cases of ovarian cancer, coding for a protein that displays temperature-sensitive activity in transcriptional activation. The mutant protein differs from the wild type protein at a single amino acid, R1 699W that occurs in a region at the N-terminal BRCT domain that is highly conserved among BRCA1 homologs. When the C-terminus of the mutant protein (aa 1560-1863) was fused to a heterologous GAL4 DNA-binding domain and expressed in yeast or mammalian cells, it was able to activate transcription of a reporter gene to levels observed for wild type BRCA1 at the permissive temperature (30degreesC) but exhibited significantly less transcription activity at the restrictive temperature (37degreesC or 39degreesC). Our results indicate that the transcriptional activity of the R1699W mutant can be modulated as a function of temperature and provide a novel experimental approach which can be utilized to dissect the molecular mechanism(s) of BRCA1 in processes related to transcription.
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