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41.
  • Schoumans, Jacqueline, et al. (författare)
  • Comprehensive mutational analysis of a cohort of Swedish Cornelia de Lange syndrome patients
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - 1018-4813 .- 1476-5438. ; 15:2, s. 143-149
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS; OMIM 122470) is a rare multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome characterized by distinctive dysmorphic facial features, severe growth and developmental delay and abnormalities of the upper limbs. About 50% of CdLS patients have been found to have heterozygous mutations in the NIPBL gene and a few cases were recently found to be caused by mutations in the X-linked SMC1L1 gene. We performed a mutation screening of all NIPBL coding exons by direct sequencing in 11 patients (nine sporadic and two familial cases) diagnosed with CdLS in Sweden and detected mutations in seven of the cases. All were de novo, and six of the mutations have not been previously described. Four patients without identifiable NIPBL mutations were subsequently subjected to multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis to exclude whole exon deletions/duplications of NIPBL. In addition, mutation analysis of the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of NIPBL was performed. Tiling resolution array comparative genomic hybridization analysis was carried out on these four patients to detect cryptic chromosome imbalances and in addition the boys were screened for SMC1L1 mutations. We found a de novo 9p duplication with a size of 0.6 Mb in one of the patients with a CdLS-like phenotype but no mutations were detected in SMC1L1. So far, two genes (NIPBL and SMC1L1) have been identified causing CdLS or CdLS-like phenotypes. However, in a considerable proportion of individuals demonstrating the CdLS phenotype, mutations in any of these two genes are not found and other potential loci harboring additional CdLS-causing genes should be considered.
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42.
  • Schoumans, J, et al. (författare)
  • Detection and delineation of an unusual 17p11.2 deletion by array-CGH and refinement of the Smith-Magenis syndrome minimum deletion to similar to 650 kb
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Medical Genetics. - Elsevier. - 1769-7212. ; 48:3, s. 290-300
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome and it is characterized by an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. SMS patients have a distinct phenotype which is believed to be caused by haploinsufficiency of one or more genes in the associated deleted region. Five non-deletion patients with classical phenotypic features of SMS have been reported with mutations in the retinoic acid induced I (RAII) gene, located within the SMS critical interval. Happloinsufficiency of the RAII gene is likely to be the responsible gene for the majority of the SMS features, but other deleted genes in the SMS region may modify the overall phenotype in the patients with 17p11.2 deletions. SMS is usually diagnosed in the clinical genetic setting by FISH analysis using commercially available probes. We detected a submicroscopic deletion in 17p11.2 using array-CGH with a resolution of approximately 1 Mb in a patient with the SMS phenotype, who was not deleted for the commercially available SMS microdeletion FISH probe. Delineation of the deletion was performed using a 32K tiling BAC-array, containing 32,500 BAC clones. The deletion in this patient was size mapped to 2.7 Mb and covered the RAII gene. This case enabled the refinement of the SMS minimum deletion to similar to 650 kb containing eight putative genes and one predicted gene. In addition, it demonstrates the importance to investigate deletion of RAII in SMS patients.
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43.
  • Spurdle, Amanda B., et al. (författare)
  • BRCA1 R1699Q variant displaying ambiguous functional abrogation confers intermediate breast and ovarian cancer risk
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - BMJ Publishing Group. - 0022-2593. ; 49:8, s. 525-532
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Clinical classification of rare sequence changes identified in the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 is essential for appropriate genetic counselling of individuals carrying these variants. We previously showed that variant BRCA1 c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln in the BRCA1 transcriptional transactivation domain demonstrated equivocal results from a series of functional assays, and proposed that this variant may confer low to moderate risk of cancer. Methods Measures of genetic risk (report of family history, segregation) were assessed for 68 BRCA1 c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln (R1699Q) families recruited through family cancer clinics, comparing results with 34 families carrying the previously classified pathogenic BRCA1 c.5095C>T p.Arg1699Trp (R1699W) mutation at the same residue, and to 243 breast cancer families with no BRCA1 pathogenic mutation (BRCA-X). Results Comparison of BRCA1 carrier prediction scores of probands using the BOADICEA risk prediction tool revealed that BRCA1 c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln variant carriers had family histories that were less 'BRCA1-like' than BRCA1 c.5095C>T p.Arg1699Trp mutation carriers (p<0.00001), but more 'BRCA1-like' than BRCA-X families (p=0.0004). Further, modified segregation analysis of the subset of 30 families with additional genotyping showed that BRCA1 c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln had reduced penetrance compared with the average truncating BRCA1 mutation penetrance (p=0.0002), with estimated cumulative risks to age 70 of breast or ovarian cancer of 24%. Conclusions Our results provide substantial evidence that the BRCA1 c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln (R1699Q) variant, demonstrating ambiguous functional deficiency across multiple assays, is associated with intermediate risk of breast and ovarian cancer, highlighting challenges for risk modelling and clinical management of patients of this and other potential moderate-risk variants.
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44.
  • Staaf, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Normalization of Illumina Infinium whole-genome SNP data improves copy number estimates and allelic intensity ratios.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: BMC Bioinformatics. - BioMed Central. - 1471-2105. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Illumina Infinium whole genome genotyping (WGG) arrays are increasingly being applied in cancer genomics to study gene copy number alterations and allele-specific aberrations such as loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH). Methods developed for normalization of WGG arrays have mostly focused on diploid, normal samples. However, for cancer samples genomic aberrations may confound normalization and data interpretation. Therefore, we examined the effects of the conventionally used normalization method for Illumina Infinium arrays when applied to cancer samples. RESULTS: We demonstrate an asymmetry in the detection of the two alleles for each SNP, which deleteriously influences both allelic proportions and copy number estimates. The asymmetry is caused by a remaining bias between the two dyes used in the Infinium II assay after using the normalization method in Illumina's proprietary software (BeadStudio). We propose a quantile normalization strategy for correction of this dye bias. We tested the normalization strategy using 535 individual hybridizations from 10 data sets from the analysis of cancer genomes and normal blood samples generated on Illumina Infinium II 300 k version 1 and 2, 370 k and 550 k BeadChips. We show that the proposed normalization strategy successfully removes asymmetry in estimates of both allelic proportions and copy numbers. Additionally, the normalization strategy reduces the technical variation for copy number estimates while retaining the response to copy number alterations. CONCLUSION: The proposed normalization strategy represents a valuable tool that improves the quality of data obtained from Illumina Infinium arrays, in particular when used for LOH and copy number variation studies.
45.
  • Staaf, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Segmentation-based detection of allelic imbalance and loss-of-heterozygosity in cancer cells using whole genome SNP arrays
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology. - BioMed Central. - 1474-7596. ; 9:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a strategy for detection of loss-of-heterozygosity and allelic imbalance in cancer cells from whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping data. Using a dilution series of a tumor cell line mixed with its paired normal cell line and data generated on Affymetrix and Illumina platforms, including paired tumor-normal samples and tumors characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization, we demonstrate a high sensitivity and specificity of the strategy for detecting both minute and gross allelic imbalances in heterogeneous tumor samples.
46.
  • Stahl, Patrik L., et al. (författare)
  • Visualization and analysis of gene expression in tissue sections by spatial transcriptomics
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Science. - AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE. - 0036-8075. ; 353:6294, s. 78-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Analysis of the pattern of proteins or messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in histological tissue sections is a cornerstone in biomedical research and diagnostics. This typically involves the visualization of a few proteins or expressed genes at a time. We have devised a strategy, which we call "spatial transcriptomics," that allows visualization and quantitative analysis of the transcriptome with spatial resolution in individual tissue sections. By positioning histological sections on arrayed reverse transcription primers with unique positional barcodes, we demonstrate high-quality RNA-sequencing data with maintained two-dimensional positional information from the mouse brain and human breast cancer. Spatial transcriptomics provides quantitative gene expression data and visualization of the distribution of mRNAs within tissue sections and enables novel types of bioinformatics analyses, valuable in research and diagnostics.
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47.
  • Zhang, Zhong-Fa, et al. (författare)
  • Detection of submicroscopic constitutional chromosome aberrations in clinical diagnostics: a validation of the practical performance of different array platforms
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5438. ; 16:7, s. 786-792
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For several decades etiological diagnosis of patients with idiopathic mental retardation (MR) and multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) has relied on chromosome analysis by karyotyping. Conventional karyotyping allows a genome-wide detection of chromosomal abnormalities but has a limited resolution. Recently, array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) technologies have been developed to evaluate DNA copy-number alterations across the whole-genome at a much higher resolution. It has proven to be an effective tool for detection of submicroscopic chromosome abnormalities causing congenital disorders and has recently been adopted for clinical applications. Here, we investigated four high-density array platforms with a theoretical resolution <= 100 kb: 33K tiling path BAC array, 500K Affymetrix SNP array, 385K NimbleGen oligonucleotide array and 244K Agilent oligonucleotide array for their robustness and implementation in our diagnostic setting. We evaluated the practical performance based on the detection of 10 previously characterized abnormalities whose size ranged from 100 kb to 3 Mb. Furthermore, array data analysis was performed using four computer programs developed for each corresponding platform to test their effective ability of reliable copy-number detection and their user-friendliness. All tested platforms provided sensitive performances, but our experience showed that accurate and user-friendly computer programs are of crucial importance for reliable copy-number detection.
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48.
  • Alexandrov, Ludmil B., et al. (författare)
  • Signatures of mutational processes in human cancer
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 500:7463, s. 415-421
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • All cancers are caused by somatic mutations; however, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct mutational signatures. Some are present in many cancer types, notably a signature attributed to the APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases, whereas others are confined to a single cancer class. Certain signatures are associated with age of the patient at cancer diagnosis, known mutagenic exposures or defects in DNA maintenance, but many are of cryptic origin. In addition to these genome-wide mutational signatures, hypermutation localized to small genomic regions, 'kataegis', is found in many cancer types. The results reveal the diversity of mutational processes underlying the development of cancer, with potential implications for understanding of cancer aetiology, prevention and therapy.
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49.
  • Andersson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Gene expression profiling of leukemic cell lines reveals conserved molecular signatures among subtypes with specific genetic aberrations
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Leukemia. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5551. ; 19:6, s. 1042-1050
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hematologic malignancies are characterized by fusion genes of biological/clinical importance. Immortalized cell lines with such aberrations are today widely used to model different aspects of leukemogenesis. Using cDNA microarrays, we determined the gene expression profiles of 40 cell lines as well as of primary leukemias harboring 11q23/MLL rearrangements, t(1;19)[TCF3/PBX1], t(12;21)[ETV6/RUNX1], t(8;21)[RUNX1/CBFA2T1], t(8;14) [IGH@/MYC], t(8;14)[TRA@/MYC], t(9;22)[BCR/ABL1], t(10;11) [PICALM/MLLT10], t(15;17)[PML/RARA], or inv(16)[CBFB/MYH11]. Unsupervised classification revealed that hematopoietic cell lines of diverse origin, but with the same primary genetic changes, segregated together, suggesting that pathogenetically important regulatory networks remain conserved despite numerous passages. Moreover, primary leukemias cosegregated with cell lines carrying identical genetic rearrangements, further supporting that critical regulatory pathways remain intact in hematopoietic cell lines. Transcriptional signatures correlating with clinical subtypes/primary genetic changes were identified and annotated based on their biological/molecular properties and chromosomal localization. Furthermore, the expression profile of tyrosine kinase-encoding genes was investigated, identifying several differentially expressed members, segregating with primary genetic changes, which may be targeted with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The identified conserved signatures are likely to reflect regulatory networks of importance for the transforming abilities of the primary genetic changes and offer important pathogenetic insights as well as a number of targets for future rational drug design.
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50.
  • Andersson, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • Germline rearrangements in families with strong family history of glioma and malignant melanoma, colon, and breast cancer.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Neuro-Oncology. - Oxford University Press. - 1523-5866. ; 16:10, s. 1333-1340
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although familial susceptibility to glioma is known, the genetic basis for this susceptibility remains unidentified in the majority of glioma-specific families. An alternative approach to identifying such genes is to examine cancer pedigrees, which include glioma as one of several cancer phenotypes, to determine whether common chromosomal modifications might account for the familial aggregation of glioma and other cancers.
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