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51.
  • Antoniou, A, et al. (författare)
  • Average risks of breast and ovarian cancer associated with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations detected in case series unselected for family history: A combined analysis of 22 studies
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - Cell Press. - 0002-9297. ; 72:5, s. 1117-1130
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 confer high risks of breast and ovarian cancer, but the average magnitude of these risks is uncertain and may depend on the context. Estimates based on multiple-case families may be enriched for mutations of higher risk and/or other familial risk factors, whereas risk estimates from studies based on cases unselected for family history have been imprecise. We pooled pedigree data from 22 studies involving 8,139 index case patients unselected for family history with female (86%) or male (2%) breast cancer or epithelial ovarian cancer (12%), 500 of whom had been found to carry a germline mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Breast and ovarian cancer incidence rates for mutation carriers were estimated using a modified segregation analysis, based on the occurrence of these cancers in the relatives of mutation-carrying index case patients. The average cumulative risks in BRCA1-mutation carriers by age 70 years were 65% (95% confidence interval 44%-78%) for breast cancer and 39% (18%-54%) for ovarian cancer. The corresponding estimates for BRCA2 were 45% (31%-56%) and 11% (2.4%-19%). Relative risks of breast cancer declined significantly with age for BRCA1-mutation carriers ( P trend .0012) but not for BRCA2-mutation carriers. Risks in carriers were higher when based on index breast cancer cases diagnosed at <35 years of age. We found some evidence for a reduction in risk in women from earlier birth cohorts and for variation in risk by mutation position for both genes. The pattern of cancer risks was similar to those found in multiple-case families, but their absolute magnitudes were lower, particularly for BRCA2. The variation in risk by age at diagnosis of index case is consistent with the effects of other genes modifying cancer risk in carriers.
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52.
  • Antoniou, A C, et al. (författare)
  • Breast and ovarian cancer risks to carriers of the BRCA1 5382insC and 185delAG and BRCA2 6174delT mutations: a combined analysis of 22 population based studies
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - BMJ Publishing Group. - 0022-2593. ; 42:7, s. 602-603
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A recent report estimated the breast cancer risks in carriers of the three Ashkenazi founder mutations to be higher than previously published estimates derived from population based studies. In an attempt to confirm this, the breast and ovarian cancer risks associated with the three Ashkenazi founder mutations were estimated using families included in a previous meta-analysis of populatrion based studies. The estimated breast cancer risks for each of the founder BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations were similar to the corresponding estimates based on all BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations in the meta-analysis. These estimates appear to be consistent with the observed prevalence of the mutations in the Ashkenazi Jewish population.
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53.
  • Antoniou, Antonis C., et al. (författare)
  • Common alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906. ; 20:16, s. 3304-3321
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q25.1, near the ESR1 gene, have been implicated in the susceptibility to breast cancer for Asian (rs2046210) and European women (rs9397435). A genome-wide association study in Europeans identified two further breast cancer susceptibility variants: rs11249433 at 1p11.2 and rs999737 in RAD51L1 at 14q24.1. Although previously identified breast cancer susceptibility variants have been shown to be associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, the involvement of these SNPs to breast cancer susceptibility in mutation carriers is currently unknown. To address this, we genotyped these SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from 42 studies from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. In the analysis of 14 123 BRCA1 and 8053 BRCA2 mutation carriers of European ancestry, the 6q25.1 SNPs (r(2) = 0.14) were independently associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers [ hazard ratio (HR) = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.23, P-trend = 4.5 x 10(-9) for rs2046210; HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18-1.40, P-trend = 1.3 x 10(-8) for rs9397435], but only rs9397435 was associated with the risk for BRCA2 carriers (HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.28, P-trend = 0.031). SNP rs11249433 (1p11.2) was associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17, P-trend = 0.015), but was not associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.92-1.02, P-trend = 0.20). SNP rs999737 (RAD51L1) was not associated with breast cancer risk for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers (P-trend = 0.27 and 0.30, respectively). The identification of SNPs at 6q25.1 associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers will lead to a better understanding of the biology of tumour development in these women.
54.
  • Antoniou, A. C., et al. (författare)
  • The BOADICEA model of genetic susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancers: updates and extensions
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1532-1827. ; 98:8, s. 1457-1466
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multiple genetic loci confer susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancers. We have previously developed a model (BOADICEA) under which susceptibility to breast cancer is explained by mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, as well as by the joint multiplicative effects of many genes ( polygenic component). We have now updated BOADICEA using additional family data from two UK population-based studies of breast cancer and family data from BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers identified by 22 population-based studies of breast or ovarian cancer. The combined data set includes 2785 families ( 301 BRCA1 positive and 236 BRCA2 positive). Incidences were smoothed using locally weighted regression techniques to avoid large variations between adjacent intervals. A birth cohort effect on the cancer risks was implemented, whereby each individual was assumed to develop cancer according to calendar period-specific incidences. The fitted model predicts that the average breast cancer risks in carriers increase in more recent birth cohorts. For example, the average cumulative breast cancer risk to age 70 years among BRCA1 carriers is 50% for women born in 1920 - 1929 and 58% among women born after 1950. The model was further extended to take into account the risks of male breast, prostate and pancreatic cancer, and to allow for the risk of multiple cancers. BOADICEA can be used to predict carrier probabilities and cancer risks to individuals with any family history, and has been implemented in userfriendly Web-based program(http://www.srl.cam.ac.uk/genepi/boadicea/boadicea_home. html).
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55.
  • Aoude, Lauren G., et al. (författare)
  • A BAP1 Mutation in a Danish Family Predisposes to Uveal Melanoma and Other Cancers
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 8:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Truncating germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA-1 associated protein-1 (BAP1) have been reported in families predisposed to developing a wide range of different cancer types including uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma. There has also been an association between amelanotic tumor development and germline BAP1 mutation suggesting a possible phenotypic characteristic of BAP1 mutation carriers. Though there have been many types of cancer associated with germline BAP1 mutation, the full spectrum of disease association is yet to be ascertained. Here we describe a Danish family with predominantly uveal melanoma but also a range of other tumor types including lung, neuroendocrine, stomach, and breast cancer; as well as pigmented skin lesions. Whole-exome sequencing identified a BAP1 splice mutation located at c.581-2A>G, which leads to a premature truncation of BAP1 in an individual with uveal melanoma. This mutation was carried by several other family members with melanoma or various cancers. The finding expands on the growing profile of BAP1 as an important uveal and cutaneous melanoma tumor suppressor gene and implicates its involvement in the development of lung, and stomach cancer.
56.
  • Aoude, Lauren G, et al. (författare)
  • Nonsense Mutations in the Shelterin Complex Genes ACD and TERF2IP in Familial Melanoma.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Oxford University Press. - 1460-2105. ; 107:2, s. 408-408
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The shelterin complex protects chromosomal ends by regulating how the telomerase complex interacts with telomeres. Following the recent finding in familial melanoma of inactivating germline mutations in POT1, encoding a member of the shelterin complex, we searched for mutations in the other five components of the shelterin complex in melanoma families.
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57.
  • Arason, Adalgeir, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide search for breast cancer linkage in large Icelandic non-BRCA1/2 families
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - BioMed Central. - 1465-5411. ; 12:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: A significant proportion of high-risk breast cancer families are not explained by mutations in known genes. Recent genome-wide searches (GWS) have not revealed any single major locus reminiscent of BRCA1 and BRCA2, indicating that still unidentified genes may explain relatively few families each or interact in a way obscure to linkage analyses. This has drawn attention to possible benefits of studying populations where genetic heterogeneity might be reduced. We thus performed a GWS for linkage on nine Icelandic multiple-case non-BRCA1/2 families of desirable size for mapping highly penetrant loci. To follow up suggestive loci, an additional 13 families from other Nordic countries were genotyped for selected markers. Methods: GWS was performed using 811 microsatellite markers providing about five centiMorgan (cM) resolution. Multipoint logarithm of odds (LOD) scores were calculated using parametric and nonparametric methods. For selected markers and cases, tumour tissue was compared to normal tissue to look for allelic loss indicative of a tumour suppressor gene. Results: The three highest signals were located at chromosomes 6q, 2p and 14q. One family contributed suggestive LOD scores (LOD 2.63 to 3.03, dominant model) at all these regions, without consistent evidence of a tumour suppressor gene. Haplotypes in nine affected family members mapped the loci to 2p23.2 to p21, 6q14.2 to q23.2 and 14q21.3 to q24.3. No evidence of a highly penetrant locus was found among the remaining families. The heterogeneity LOD (HLOD) at the 6q, 2p and 14q loci in all families was 3.27, 1.66 and 1.24, respectively. The subset of 13 Nordic families showed supportive HLODs at chromosome 6q (ranging from 0.34 to 1.37 by country subset). The 2p and 14q loci overlap with regions indicated by large families in previous GWS studies of breast cancer. Conclusions: Chromosomes 2p, 6q and 14q are candidate sites for genes contributing together to high breast cancer risk. A polygenic model is supported, suggesting the joint effect of genes in contributing to breast cancer risk to be rather common in non-BRCA1/2 families. For genetic counselling it would seem important to resolve the mode of genetic interaction.
58.
  • Archey, WB, et al. (författare)
  • Increased CpG methylation of the estrogen receptor gene in BRCA1-linked estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Oncogene. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5594. ; 21:46, s. 7034-7041
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A distinctive feature of BRCA1-linked breast cancers is that they typically do not express estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha). Previous investigation suggests that methylation of CpGs within the ERa promoter mediates repression of gene expression in some ERalpha-negative breast cancers. To determine if methylation of CpGs within the ERalpha promoter is associated with BRCA1-linked breast cancers, we evaluated methylation in exon 1 of the ERalpha gene in 40 ERalpha-negative breast cancers, 20 of which were non BRCA1-linked and 20 BRCA1-linked. CpG methylation was evaluated by either methylation-sensitive restriction digest (HpaII), methylation-sensitive PCR (MSP), or direct sequencing of bisulfite-treated genomic DNA. Results from HpaII digests and MSP documented a high degree of methylation, the MSP data showing slightly higher methylation in the BRCA1-linked group. CpGs analysed by direct sequencing showed an overall average methylation of 25% among non BRCA1-linked cancers and 40% among BRCA1-linked cancers (P=0.0031). The most notable difference was found at five particular CpGs, each of which exhibited a greater than twofold increase in methylation in the BRCA1-linked group compared to the non BRCA1-linked group (P < 0.03 for each CpG). Methylation of certain critical CpGs may represent an important factor in transcriptional repression of the ERa gene in BRCA1-linked breast cancers.
59.
  • Augustinsson, Annelie, et al. (författare)
  • Accuracy of self-reported family history of cancer, mutation status and tumor characteristics in patients with early onset breast cancer
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - Taylor & Francis. - 0284-186X. ; 57:5, s. 595-603
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the concordance between self-reported and registry-reported information regarding family history of breast cancer (BC), ovarian cancer (OvC) and other types of cancer in first-degree relatives of patients with early onset BC, and to determine the frequency of mutation carriers and non-mutation carriers. The secondary objective was to describe tumor characteristics for each mutation group. Material and methods: Between 1993 and 2013, 231 women who were ≤35 years old when diagnosed with BC were registered at the Oncogenetic Clinic at Skåne University Hospital in Lund, Sweden. Self-reported and registry-reported information regarding first-degree family history of cancer was collected together with information regarding tumor characteristics. Results: Almost perfect agreement was observed between self-reported and registry-reported information regarding first-degree family history of BC (κ = 0.92) and OvC (κ = 0.86). Lesser agreement was observed between reports regarding family history of other types of cancer (κ = 0.51). Mutation screening revealed pathogenic germline mutations in 30.4%; 18.8% in BRCA1, 7.1% in BRCA2 and 4.5% in other genes. Compared with other mutation groups, BRCA1 mutation carriers were more likely to be diagnosed with high-grade, ER-, PR- and triple-negative tumors. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that physicians and genetic counselors can rely on self-reported information regarding BC and OvC in first-degree relatives. However, self-reported information regarding other types of cancer is not communicated as effectively, and there should be more focus on retrieving the correct information regarding family history of all tumor types. Furthermore, we observed that even though all BC patients fulfilled the criteria for genetic counseling and testing, a large number of patients diagnosed at ≤35 years of age did not receive genetic counseling at the Oncogenetic Clinic. This finding merits further elucidation.
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60.
  • Balciuniene, Jorune, et al. (författare)
  • Recurrent 10q22-q23 deletions: a genomic disorder on 10q associated with cognitive and behavioral abnormalities
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - Cell Press. - 0002-9297. ; 80:5, s. 938-947
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Low-copy repeats (LCRs) are genomic features that affect chromosome stability and can produce disease-associated rearrangements. We describe members of three families with deletions in 10q22.3-q23.31, a region harboring a complex set of LCRs, and demonstrate that rearrangements in this region are associated with behavioral and neurodevelopmental abnormalities, including cognitive impairment, autism, hyperactivity, and possibly psychiatric disease. Fine mapping of the deletions in members of all three families by use of a custom 10q oligonucleotide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (NimbleGen) and polymerase chain reaction - based methods demonstrated a different deletion in each family. In one proband, the deletion breakpoints are associated with DNA fragments containing noncontiguous sequences of chromosome 10, whereas, in the other two families, the breakpoints are within paralogous LCRs, removing similar to 7.2 Mb and 32 genes. Our data provide evidence that the 10q22-q23 genomic region harbors one or more genes important for cognitive and behavioral development and that recurrent deletions affecting this interval define a novel genomic disorder.
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