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Sökning: WFRF:(Borg Åke) > (2015-2019)

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31.
  • Lauss, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Analysis in Melanoma Reveals the Importance of CpG Methylation in MITF Regulation.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Investigative Dermatology. - Elsevier. - 1523-1747. ; 135:7, s. 1820-1828
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is a key regulator of melanocyte development and a lineage-specific oncogene in melanoma; a highly lethal cancer known for its unpredictable clinical course. MITF is regulated by multiple intracellular signaling pathways although the exact mechanisms that determine MITF expression and activity remain incompletely understood. In this study, we obtained genome-wide DNA methylation profiles from 50 stage IV melanomas, normal melanocytes, keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts, and utilized The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data for experimental validation. By integrating DNA methylation and gene expression data we found that hypermethylation of MITF and its co-regulated differentiation pathway genes, corresponded to decreased gene expression levels. In cell lines with a hypermethylated MITF-pathway, over-expression of MITF did not alter the expression level or methylation status of the MITF pathway genes. In contrast however, demethylation treatment of these cell lines induced MITF-pathway activity, confirming that gene-regulation was controlled via methylation. The discovery that the activity of the master regulator of pigmentation, MITF, and its downstream targets may be regulated by hypermethylation has significant implications for understanding the development and evolvement of melanoma.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 23 February 2015. doi:10.1038/jid.2015.61.
32.
  • Lindblad, O, et al. (författare)
  • Aberrant activation of the PI3K/mTOR pathway promotes resistance to sorafenib in AML
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Oncogene. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5594. ; 35:39, s. 5119-5131
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Therapy directed against oncogenic FLT3 has been shown to induce response in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but these responses are almost always transient. To address the mechanism of FLT3 inhibitor resistance, we generated two resistant AML cell lines by sustained treatment with the FLT3 inhibitor sorafenib. Parental cell lines carry the FLT3-ITD (tandem duplication) mutation and are highly responsive to FLT3 inhibitors, whereas resistant cell lines display resistance to multiple FLT3 inhibitors. Sanger sequencing and protein mass-spectrometry did not identify any acquired mutations in FLT3 in the resistant cells. Moreover, sorafenib treatment effectively blocked FLT3 activation in resistant cells, whereas it was unable to block colony formation or cell survival, suggesting that the resistant cells are no longer FLT3 dependent. Gene expression analysis of sensitive and resistant cell lines, as well as of blasts from patients with sorafenib-resistant AML, suggested an enrichment of the PI3K/mTOR pathway in the resistant phenotype, which was further supported by next-generation sequencing and phospho-specific-antibody array analysis. Furthermore, a selective PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, gedatolisib, efficiently blocked proliferation, colony and tumor formation, and induced apoptosis in resistant cell lines. Gedatolisib significantly extended survival of mice in a sorafenib-resistant AML patient-derived xenograft model. Taken together, our data suggest that aberrant activation of the PI3K/mTOR pathway in FLT3-ITD-dependent AML results in resistance to drugs targeting FLT3.Oncogene advance online publication, 21 March 2016; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.41.
33.
  • Lindquist, Kajsa Ericson, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical framework for next generation sequencing based analysis of treatment predictive mutations and multiplexed gene fusion detection in non-small cell lung cancer
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Oncotarget. - Impact Journals, LLC. - 1949-2553. ; 8:21, s. 34796-34810
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Precision medicine requires accurate multi-gene clinical diagnostics. We describe the implementation of an Illumina TruSight Tumor (TST) clinical NGS diagnostic framework and parallel validation of a NanoString RNA-based ALK, RET, and ROS1 gene fusion assay for combined analysis of treatment predictive alterations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a regional healthcare region of Sweden (Scandinavia). The TST panel was clinically validated in 81 tumors (99% hotspot mutation concordance), after which 533 consecutive NSCLCs were collected during one-year of routine clinical analysis in the healthcare region (~90% advanced stage patients). The NanoString assay was evaluated in 169 of 533 cases. In the 533-sample cohort 79% had 1-2 variants, 12% >2 variants and 9% no detected variants. Ten gene fusions (five ALK, three RET, two ROS1) were detected in 135 successfully analyzed cases (80% analysis success rate). No ALK or ROS1 FISH fusion positive case was missed by the NanoString assay. Stratification of the 533-sample cohort based on actionable alterations in 11 oncogenes revealed that 66% of adenocarcinomas, 13% of squamous carcinoma (SqCC) and 56% of NSCLC not otherwise specified harbored ≥1 alteration. In adenocarcinoma, 10.6% of patients (50.3% if including KRAS) could potentially be eligible for emerging therapeutics, in addition to the 15.3% of patients eligible for standard EGFR or ALK inhibitors. For squamous carcinoma corresponding proportions were 4.4% (11.1% with KRAS) vs 2.2%. In conclusion, multiplexed NGS and gene fusion analyses are feasible in NSCLC for clinical diagnostics, identifying notable proportions of patients potentially eligible for emerging molecular therapeutics.
34.
  • Loman, Niklas, et al. (författare)
  • Abstract P2-02-09: Breast cancer subtype distribution and circulating tumor DNA in response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy: Experiences from a preoperative cohort within SCAN-B
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cancer research. Supplement. - American Association for Cancer Research Inc.. - 1538-7445. ; 78:4
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Preoperative chemotherapy in early breast cancer increases the rate of breast preservation and provides prognostic information. In the case of residual disease, a change in subtypes may be observed. Sensitive and reproducible biomarkers predicting treatment response early during the treatment course are needed in order to better exploit the potential benefit of an individualized preoperative treatment.Material and Methods: In an ongoing prospective study within the population-based SCAN-B project (NCT02306096), patients undergoing preoperative chemotherapy for early or locally recurrent breast cancer have been treated with iv Epirubicin and Cyclophosphamide q3w x 3 in sequence with either Docetaxel q3w x 3 or Paclitaxel q1w x 9 with a preoperative intent. HER2-positive cases also received HER2-directed treatment. At baseline, patients were staged using sentinel node biopsy for clinically node-negative patients and CT scan for cytologically confirmed node-positive cases. A clinical core needle biopsy as well as tissue from the surgical specimen was collected for determination of conventional biomarkers including ER, PgR, HER2 and Ki67. Tumor biopsies for biomolecule-extraction and RNA-sequencing were taken using ultrasound guidance and collected fresh in RNAlater at baseline, after 2 treatment cycles, as well as at surgery. Blood plasma samples were collected at baseline, after one-, three-, and six- 3w treatment cycles, and post-surgery. Using RNA-sequencing data, somatic mutations were identified in the tumor biopsies and personalized analyses for circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) were performed. A pathological complete remission (pCR) was defined as the complete disappearance of invasive breast cancer in the breast and axilla at time of definitive surgery. Subtyping was performed using modified St Gallen criteria (2013).Results: Thus far, 45 patients aged 24-74 years have been included, of which 34 (76 %) were clinical stage 2 and 11 (24%) were stage 3. The subtype distribution at baseline was five Luminal A-like (11 %), 21 Luminal B-like (HER2 negative) (47 %), 8 HER2-positive (18 %) and 11 Triple-negative (ductal) (24 %). The rates of pCR in 38 operated cases to date were 0/3 Luminal A-like, 3/19 Luminal B-like (HER2 negative), 2/8 HER2-positive, and 4/7 Triple-negative (overall 24 % pCR rate). One patient did not undergo surgery due to clinically progressive disease. In 25 cases with evaluable residual disease at surgery, there was a shift in the subtype in 13 (52 %), the majority of which represented a transition from Luminal B to Luminal A. No Triple-negative cases underwent a change in subtype during treatment. Results of the ctDNA analyses will be presented at the meeting.Discussion: We have established an infrastructure allowing for an extensive evaluation of preoperative chemotherapy in early breast cancer. The goal is to develop methods to refine response-guided treatment in early breast cancer using molecular responses in the tumor as well as in the blood circulation. The patients continue to be prospectively monitored with iterative ctDNA analyses during follow-up.
35.
  • Malander, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Ovarialcancer är på många sätt en heterogen sjukdom
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Lakartidningen. - Swedish Medical Association. - 1652-7518. ; 112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Ovarian cancer develops due to a complex interplay between hereditary and environmental factors. Although often described as one disease, ovarian cancer is actually a group of distinct tumor types. Recent research has indicated that a large percentage of ovarian cancers may originate from the fallopian tube epithelium. Although most cancers develop in patients without a known hereditary syndrome, it is clear that the number of familial cancers is larger than previously supposed. The two most common hereditary syndromes where ovarian cancer can develop are hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) and Lynch syndrome.
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36.
  • Mantere, Tuomo, et al. (författare)
  • Case-control analysis of truncating mutations in DNA damage response genes connects TEX15 and FANCD2 with hereditary breast cancer susceptibility
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 7:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several known breast cancer susceptibility genes encode proteins involved in DNA damage response (DDR) and are characterized by rare loss-of-function mutations. However, these explain less than half of the familial cases. To identify novel susceptibility factors, 39 rare truncating mutations, identified in 189 Northern Finnish hereditary breast cancer patients in parallel sequencing of 796 DDR genes, were studied for disease association. Mutation screening was performed for Northern Finnish breast cancer cases (n = 578-1565) and controls (n = 337-1228). Mutations showing potential cancer association were analyzed in additional Finnish cohorts. c.7253dupT in TEX15, encoding a DDR factor important in meiosis, associated with hereditary breast cancer (p = 0.018) and likely represents a Northern Finnish founder mutation. A deleterious c.2715 + 1G > A mutation in the Fanconi anemia gene, FANCD2, was over two times more common in the combined Finnish hereditary cohort compared to controls. A deletion (c.640-644del5) in RNF168, causative for recessive RIDDLE syndrome, had high prevalence in majority of the analyzed cohorts, but did not associate with breast cancer. In conclusion, truncating variants in TEX15 and FANCD2 are potential breast cancer risk factors, warranting further investigations in other populations. Furthermore, high frequency of RNF168 c.640-644del5 indicates the need for its testing in Finnish patients with RIDDLE syndrome symptoms.
37.
  • Morgan, G, et al. (författare)
  • Abstract P3-02-02: Concordance between immunohistochemical and gene-expression based subtyping of early breast cancer using core needle biopsies and surgical specimens - experices from SCAN-B
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cancer research. Supplement. - American Association for Cancer Research Inc.. - 1538-7445. ; 78:4
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Preoperative chemotherapy in early breast cancer increases the rate of breast preservation and provides prognostic information. Treatment decisions in these cases rely on biomarker assessments and subtyping from tissue acquired through core needle biopsies. Tumor heterogeneity and representativity are pit-falls when limited tissue is available. Biomarker expression may change considerably as a result of preoperative chemotherapy, and in a subset of cases a complete pathological response at time of surgery may even preclude any further assessment. Therefore, the reliability and reproducibility of biomarkers in base-line core biopsies are of utmost importance for patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy.Material and Methods: In an ongoing population-based study of early breast cancer, the SCAN-B (NCT02306096), patients were identified for whom an ultra-sound guided core needle biopsy was analyzed for biomarkers during primary clinical work-up and the patient was offered primary surgery as initial treatment. Clinical biomarker profiles including immunohistochemical (IHC) determinations of ER, PgR, HER2 and Ki67 were translated to subtypes according to modified St Gallen criteria (2013) and compared with paired samples from surgical specimens. In addition, tumor specimens for biomolecule extraction and RNA sequencing were collected fresh in RNAlater.Results: IHC data was available from 51 paired samples. The subtype distribution in core needle biopsies was DCIS in 1 case (2 %), LCIS in 1 case (2 %) Luminal A-like in 16 cases (31 %), Luminal B-like (HER2 negative) in 26 cases (51 %), Luminal B-HER2-like (HER2 positive) in 4 cases (8 %), HER2-positive (non-luminal) in 1 case (2 %) and triple negative (ductal) breast cancer in 2 cases (4 %). The subtype distribution in surgical specimens was DCIS in 0 case (0 %), LCIS in 1 case (2 %) Luminal A-like in 18 cases (35 %), Luminal B-like (HER2negative) in 23 cases (45 %), Luminal B--like (HER2 positive) in 6 cases (12 %), HER2-positive (non-luminal) in 1 case (2 %) and triple negative (ductal) breast cancer in 2 cases (4 %). Notably, 5/16 cases classified as Luminal A-like in the core needle biopsy were reclassified as Luminal B-like (HER2-negative) in the surgical specimen, whereas 9/26 cases classified as Luminal B-like (HER2-negative) in the core needle biopsy were reclassified as either Luminal A-like (7 cases) or Luminal B-like (HER2 positive) (2 cases) in the surgical specimen. In all instances, except one, transition between Luminal A-like and Luminal B-like was due to recorded Ki67 expression. One case that was classified as a DCIS in the core needle was reclassified as Luminal B-like (HER2 negative) at time of surgery.Discussion: In this limited material, discordance between evaluations regarding Luminal A-like and Luminal B-like was considerable. Especially the misclassification of primary HER2-positive breast cancer needs further evaluation. These findings may be caused by tumor heterogeneity, and highlight the risk of both over- and under-treatment upon biomarker assessment from core needle biopsies. Data from gene expression based subtype classifications will be presented during the meeting.
38.
  • Morganella, Sandro, et al. (författare)
  • The topography of mutational processes in breast cancer genomes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Somatic mutations in human cancers show unevenness in genomic distribution that correlate with aspects of genome structure and function. These mutations are, however, generated by multiple mutational processes operating through the cellular lineage between the fertilized egg and the cancer cell, each composed of specific DNA damage and repair components and leaving its own characteristic mutational signature on the genome. Using somatic mutation catalogues from 560 breast cancer whole-genome sequences, here we show that each of 12 base substitution, 2 insertion/deletion (indel) and 6 rearrangement mutational signatures present in breast tissue, exhibit distinct relationships with genomic features relating to transcription, DNA replication and chromatin organization. This signature-based approach permits visualization of the genomic distribution of mutational processes associated with APOBEC enzymes, mismatch repair deficiency and homologous recombinational repair deficiency, as well as mutational processes of unknown aetiology. Furthermore, it highlights mechanistic insights including a putative replication-dependent mechanism of APOBEC-related mutagenesis.
39.
  • Newie, Inga, et al. (författare)
  • HER2-encoded mir-4728 forms a receptor-independent circuit with miR-21-5p through the non-canonical poly(A) polymerase PAPD5
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We previously reported that the human HER2 gene encodes the intronic microRNA mir-4728, which is overexpressed together with its oncogenic host gene and may act independently of the HER2 receptor. More recently, we also reported that the oncogenic miR-21-5p is regulated by 3′ tailing and trimming by the non-canonical poly(A) polymerase PAPD5 and the ribonuclease PARN. Here we demonstrate a dual function for the HER2 locus in upregulation of miR-21-5p; while HER2 signalling activates transcription of mir-21, miR-4728-3p specifically stabilises miR-21-5p through inhibition of PAPD5. Our results establish a new and unexpected oncogenic role for the HER2 locus that is not currently being targeted by any anti-HER2 therapy.
40.
  • Nielsen, Henriette Roed, et al. (författare)
  • BRCA1/BRCA2 founder mutations and cancer risks: impact in the western Danish population.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Familial Cancer. - Kluwer. - 1389-9600. ; 15:4, s. 507-512
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes significantly contribute to hereditary breast cancer and ovarian cancer, but the phenotypic effect from different mutations is insufficiently recognized. We used a western Danish clinic-based cohort of 299 BRCA families to study the female cancer risk in mutation carriers and their untested first-degree relatives. Founder mutations were characterized and the risk of cancer was assessed in relation to the specific mutations. In BRCA1, the cumulative cancer risk at age 70 was 35 % for breast cancer and 29 % for ovarian cancer. In BRCA2, the cumulative risk was 44 % for breast cancer and 15 % for ovarian cancer. We identified 47 distinct BRCA1 mutations and 48 distinct mutations in BRCA2. Among these, 8 founder mutations [BRCA1 c.81-?_4986+?del, c.3319G>T (p.Glu1107*), c.3874delT and c.5213G>A (p.Gly1738Glu) and BRCA2 c.6373delA, c.7008-1G>A, c.7617+1G>A and c.8474delC] were found to account for 23 % of the BRCA1 mutations and for 32 % of the BRCA2 mutations. The BRCA1 mutation c.3319G>T was, compared to other BRCA1 mutations, associated with a higher risk for ovarian cancer. In conclusion, founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to up to one-third of the families in western Denmark and among these the BRCA1 c.3319G>T mutation is potentially linked to an increased risk of ovarian cancer.
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