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Sökning: WFRF:(Brockstedt Sara)

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  • Föregående 12[3]4Nästa
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21.
  • Lätt, Jimmy, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of restricted diffusion in a biological phantom: a q-space diffusion MRI study of asparagus stems at a 3T clinical scanner
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Magma. - Springer. - 1352-8661. ; 20:4, s. 213-222
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction The aim of this work was to study the effects of restricted diffusion in a biological phantom consisting of green asparagus stems using q-space MRI at a clinical scanner. Method Measurements of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the displacement distribution were performed with varied diffusion time (T d). The accuracy of the measurements was investigated with respect to the degree of violation of the short gradient pulse (SGP) condition, partial volume effects and a FWHM-based tensor model. Results The measurements showed a reasonably constant FWHM perpendicular to the capillaries in the vascular bundles and an increased FWHM parallel with the bundles when the T d was increased. A 15% decrease in FWHM perpendicular to the bundles was observed when the diffusion encoding duration was prolonged from 24 to 74 ms, owing to the violation of the SGP condition. For a population of different confinement sizes, simulations indicated that the FWHM reflects the smaller sizes rather then the mean size of the confinements. Conclusion A new method allowing tensor analysis of FWHM was derived and yielded accurate results. In conclusion, we found it possible to measure the effects of restricted diffusion with q-space MRI using a clinical MRI scanner.
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22.
  • Lätt, Jimmy, et al. (författare)
  • In vivo visualization of displacement-distribution-derived parameters in q-space imaging.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Magnetic Resonance Imaging. - Elsevier. - 1873-5894. ; 26:1, s. 77-87
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective This study aimed to explore the potential of in vivo q-space imaging in the differentiation between different cerebral water components. Materials and Methods Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed in six directions with 32 equally spaced q values and a maximum b value of 6600 s/mm2. The shape of the signal-attenuation curve and the displacement propagator were examined and compared with a normal distribution using the kurtosis parameter. Maps displaying kurtosis, fast and slow components of the apparent diffusion coefficients, fractional anisotropy and directional diffusion were calculated. The displacement propagator was further described by the full width at half and at tenth maximum and by the probability density of zero displacement P(0). Three healthy volunteers and three patients with previously diagnosed multiple sclerosis (MS) were examined. Results Simulations indicated that the kurtosis of a signal-attenuation curve can determine if more than one water component is present and that care must be taken to select an appropriate threshold. It was possible to distinguish MS plaques in both signal and diffusional kurtosis maps, and in one patient, plaques of different degree of demyelinization showed different behavior. Discussion Our results indicate that in vivo q-space analysis is a potential tool for the assessment of different cerebral water components, and it might extend the diagnostic interpretation of data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging.
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24.
  • Malmborg, Carin, et al. (författare)
  • Mapping the intracellular fraction of water by varying the gradient pulse length in q-space diffusion MRI
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Magnetic Resonance. - Academic Press. - 1096-0856. ; 180:2, s. 280-285
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Finite gradient pulse lengths are traditionally considered a nuisance in q-space diffusion NMR and MRI, since the simple Fourier relation between the acquired signal and the displacement probability is invalidated. Increasing the value of the pulse length leads to an apparently smaller value of the estimated compartment size. We propose that q-space data at different gradient pulse lengths, but with the same effective diffusion time, can be used to identify and quantify components with free or restricted diffusion from multi-exponential echo decay curves obtained on cellular systems. The method is demonstrated with experiments on excised human brain white matter and a series of model systems with well-defined free, restricted, and combined free and restricted diffusion behavior. Time-resolved diffusion MRI experiments are used to map the spatial distribution of the intracellular fraction in a yeast cell suspension during sedimentation, and observe the disappearance of this fraction after a heat treatment. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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25.
  • Malmgren, N, et al. (författare)
  • Postoperative pulmonary vascular supply in congenital heart disease evaluated with MR imaging at 0.3 T
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Acta Pædiatrica. Supplement. - Scandinavian University Press. - 0803-5326. ; 84:410, s. 63-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of static spin-echo MR imaging at low field strength in evaluating postoperative pulmonary arterial supply. Twenty-seven patients operated on for complex congenital heart disease underwent cardiac MR imaging: 27 stenoses in 20 patients and 4 aneurysms were present in the material. Five of the overlooked stenoses were located in the ventricular outflow tract or in the valvular region. All four aneurysms were well depicted. The final diagnosis were based on two-dimensional echocardiography, Doppler and invasive studies. MR correctly evaluated the pulmonary arterial supply in 21 patients. In two cases the evaluation was incomplete and in the remaining four patients MR failed to show the stenoses. MR imaging at 0.3 T is an effective non-invasive tool for postoperative evaluation of pulmonary arteries.
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26.
  • Nilsson, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • Tracking the neurodegeneration of parkinsonian disorders - A pilot study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Neuroradiology. - Springer. - 1432-1920. ; 49:2, s. 111-119
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of the study was to explore the possibilities of using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography (DTT) for the differential diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), compared with the atypical parkinsonian disorders multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). A 3.0-T MR scanner was used. DTI was acquired using a single-shot EPI sequence with diffusion encoding in 32 directions and a voxel size of 2×2×2 mm3. DTI data were analysed and DTT was performed using the PRIDE fibre tracking tool supplied by the manufacturer. The fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) within each tract were determined. DTI and DTT images in patients with moderate to advanced MSA demonstrated degeneration of the middle cerebellar peduncles and pontine crossing tracts, with decreased FA and increased ADC. This accounted for most of the pontine and cerebellar atrophy characteristic of this disease. In contrast, patients with PSP showed a selective degeneration of the superior cerebellar peduncle. Three-dimensional images of whole-brain white matter tracts demonstrated a reduction of cortical projection fibres in all patients with PSP. Visualization of the selective degeneration of individual fibre tracts, using DTI and DTT, adds qualitative data facilitating the differential diagnosis of parkinsonian disorders. Repeated measurements of FA and ADC values in a whole fibre tract might be used for monitoring disease progression and studying the effect of treatment in neuroprotective trials. The results are preliminary considering the small number of subjects in the study. © Springer-Verlag 2007.
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27.
  • Nilsson, Markus, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluating the accuracy and precision of a two-compartment Kärger model using Monte Carlo simulations.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Magnetic Resonance. - Academic Press. - 1096-0856. ; 206:1, s. 59-67
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Specific parameters of the neuronal tissue microstructure, such as axonal diameters, membrane permeability and intracellular water fractions are assessable using diffusion MRI. These parameters are commonly estimated using analytical models, which may introduce bias in the estimated parameters due to the approximations made when deriving the models. As an alternative to using analytical models, a database of signal curves generated by fast Monte Carlo simulations can be employed. Simulated diffusion MRI measurements were generated and evaluated using the two-compartment Kärger model as well as the simulation model based on a database containing signal curves from approximately 60000 simulations performed with different combinations of microstructural parameters. A protocol based on a pulsed gradient spin echo sequence with diffusion times of 30 and 60ms and with gradient amplitudes obtainable with a clinical MRI scanner was employed for the investigations. When using the analytical model, a major negative bias (up to approximately 25%) in the estimated intracellular volume fraction was observed for short exchange times, while almost no bias was seen for the simulation model. In general, the simulation model improved the accuracy of the estimated parameters as compared to the analytical model, except for the exchange time parameter.
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28.
  • Nilsson, Markus, et al. (författare)
  • Noninvasive mapping of water diffusional exchange in the human brain using filter-exchange imaging.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1522-2594. ; 69:6, s. 1572-1580
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the first in vivo application of the filter-exchange imaging protocol for diffusion MRI. The protocol allows noninvasive mapping of the rate of water exchange between microenvironments with different self-diffusivities, such as the intracellular and extracellular spaces in tissue. Since diffusional water exchange across the cell membrane is a fundamental process in human physiology and pathophysiology, clinically feasible and noninvasive imaging of the water exchange rate would offer new means to diagnose disease and monitor treatment response in conditions such as cancer and edema. The in vivo use of filter-exchange imaging was demonstrated by studying the brain of five healthy volunteers and one intracranial tumor (meningioma). Apparent exchange rates in white matter range from 0.8 ± 0.08 s(-1) in the internal capsule, to 1.6 ± 0.11 s(-1) for frontal white matter, indicating that low values are associated with high myelination. Solid tumor displayed values of up to 2.9 ± 0.8 s(-1) . In white matter, the apparent exchange rate values suggest intra-axonal exchange times in the order of seconds, confirming the slow exchange assumption in the analysis of diffusion MRI data. We propose that filter-exchange imaging could be used clinically to map the water exchange rate in pathologies. Filter-exchange imaging may also be valuable for evaluating novel therapies targeting the function of aquaporins. Magn Reson Med, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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29.
  • Nilsson, Markus, et al. (författare)
  • On the effects of a varied diffusion time in vivo: is the diffusion in white matter restricted?
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Magnetic Resonance Imaging. - Elsevier. - 1873-5894. ; 27:2008 Jul 25, s. 176-187
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this work was to study the diffusion-related signal attenuation curves (signal-vs.-b curves) measured perpendicular and parallel to the neuronal fibers of the corticospinal tract in vivo and to determine whether effects of restricted diffusion could be observed when varying the diffusion time (T(D)). A biexponential model and a two-compartment model including exchange according to the Kärger formalism were employed to analyze the signal-vs.-b curves. To validate the two-compartment model, restricted diffusion with exchange was simulated for uniformly sized cylinders, using different diameters and exchange times. The model was shown to retrieve the simulated parameters well, also when the short gradient pulse approximation was not met. The in vivo measurements performed perpendicular to the tracts, using b values up to 28000 s/mm(2) and T(D) values between 64 and 256 ms, did not show the effects of restricted diffusion as expected from previous ex vivo studies. The applied two-compartment model yielded an average axonal diameter of about 4 mum and an intracellular exchange time of about 300 ms, but did not fit statistically well to the data. In conclusion, this study indicates that if the diffusion is modeled as two compartments, of which one is restricted, exchange must be included in the model.
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