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Sökning: WFRF:(Brogaard Sara)

  • Resultat 21-30 av 49
  • Föregående 12[3]45Nästa
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  • Brogaard, Sara (författare)
  • Recent changes in land use and productivity in agro-pastoral Inner Mongolia, China
  • 2003
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This study challenges the prevailing assumption that the expansion of cultivated land areas and increasing number of livestock in the agro-pastoral regions of northern China have aggravated the process of land degradation since the start of the rural reforms in 1978. Land-use and productivity trends in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR), with special attention to the Keerqin steppe region, have been analysed. A combination of methods including household surveys, analysis of agro-statistics and satellite-based productivity modelling has been applied on different spatial scales. Increase in grain yields was found, though considerable interannual variability persists, rendering livelihood insecure for farmers. Although statistics for cultivated land area are inferior the area of cultivated land seems to be increasing mainly in the pastoral counties. Farmers acknowledge the importance of the 30-year contract on cultivated land introduced in 1997 with respect to their investment in long-term management, but ranked the availability of chemical fertilizers and the economic means to buy them as more critical for crop production than soil erosion. This indicates the increase in use of and dependence on agro-chemicals, a trend confirmed by regional statistics, and concern is raised regarding the sustainability of the rapid agricultural development. The spatio-temporal dynamics of primary production for the IMAR was analysed by means of a regionally adapted light use efficiency model. The model, driven by a combination of NOAA AVHRR data and climatic data, has been used to map monthly Gross Primary Production (GPP) for the period 1982-1999. Though the high inter-annual variability in primary production undermines the identification of significant trends, it is indicated that in the western regions there has been no change in biological production, whereas a large area in central IMAR shows a marked increases for the period 1982-99. A combination of increasing crop yields, an increase in precipitation, as well as afforestation projects are probable factors explaining the pattern of regional increase in primary production.
  • Brogaard, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Rural reforms and changes in land management and attitudes: A case study from Inner Mongolia, China
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Ambio: a Journal of Human Environment. - : Springer. - 0044-7447. ; 31:3, s. 219-225
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The international science community stresses the importance of the local perspective in the context of dryland degradation. This paper explores changes in management and attitudes in a mixed farming system in northern China, since the introduction of the economic reforms in the early 1980s, and the following changes in land-use rights. The area encompasses a dune landscape scattered with crop-land, as well as the Daqinggou Nature Reserve, an area of natural vegetation. According to farmers new varieties of maize in combination with increased use of fertilizers have improved yields, though high yield variability persists due to erratic rainfall. Farmers acknowledge the importance of the 30-year contract on cultivated land in 1997 for their investment in long-term management, but emphasize the importance of chemical fertilizers for short-term economic survival. The farmers stressed the negative impact of grazing and cultivation on soil erosion and stated that differences in vegetation composition and cover in the nature reserve are due to anthropogenic factors.
  • Brogaard, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Think H2O! – An educational partnership to raise students’ awareness of the water challenges
  • 2015
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Think H2O! – An educational partnership to raise students’ awareness of the water challenges Introduction: To secure future access to safe water is one of the most important sustainability challenges, on local and global level. Water is a cause of conflict and cooperation in an increasingly complex world. This crucial challenge requires a transdisciplinary approach (Segalàs & Tejedor, 2013) and extensive educational efforts and continuous engagement of many different stakeholders and actors. Sydvatten AB and Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies (LUCSUS) cooperate in several educational projects Sydvatten is a non-profit, municipality-owned company that produces drinking water for 900,000 residents in the south of Sweden and has a long-term responsibility to ensure future supply of drinking water for this region. LUCSUS is a university platform for education, research and cooperation inside and outside academia on questions related to sustainable development. Objectives: This paper gives an example of how different stakeholders and actors can work together in educational projects to highlight the value of water and to increase young people’s awareness, knowledge and understanding of water issues. More specifically the project aims to demonstrate the wide range of topics within water challenges and to encourage students to further education or engagement to promote sustainable development within the water sector. Methods: In the long-term project Think H2 O! Sydvatten offers teachers and their students in upper secondary school, a scholarship for a two-day watercourse at lake Bolmen, which is one of the most important resources for drinking water in Sweden. The course activities are a mix of workshops, lectures, role-play, experiments, canoeing, camping and outdoor cooking. The teachers and facilitators are from LUCSUS, Sydvatten, Vildmarksgymnasiet (the local Wilderness school) and the local business Tiraholms Fisk. The many partners involved give the students access to different competencies, skills and experiences. Master students at Lund University have developed some of the teaching material. Results: This collaboration emphasizes the transdisciplinary aspects of water, which increase the pedagogical value. The results are based on three pilot groups during 2014, with totally 150 students. The students’ evaluations demonstrate increased awareness of the value of water and a deeper understanding of the complexity of water challenges. Conclusion: The promising results show the great potential of the project and during 2015 another 500 students will be invited to participate. Despite the difficulties to evaluate the lasting effects, it is the intention of Sydvatten, the funder, to expand the project to a long-term investment. Due to demanding future sustainability challenges, it is Sydvatten’s and LUCSUS’ responsibility, as community stakeholders, to promote greater public awareness of the value of water. The project Think H2 O! is an example of social responsibility of actors in the public sector. Keywords: education, partnership, water challenges, value of water
  • Bäcklund, Ann-Katrin, et al. (författare)
  • Science - policy interfaces in impact assessment procedures
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Environmental and agricultural modelling: integrated approaches for policy impact assessment. - : Springer. - 9789048136193 - 9789048136186 ; , s. 275-294
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Modelling tools used in impact assessment procedures can be regarded as tools for communication between science and policy. In order to create an integrated system for modelling not only the scientific components have to be in place but also the science/policy interfaces in the assessment procedures have to be identified and their social dynamics understood.To make a system like SEAMLESS Integrated Framework (SEAMLESS-IF) applicable in a European decision-making process interaction with potential users of the system is needed during different stages of development. We are here describing some of the interactive work performed to enable user involvement in the development of the framework and the learning that was triggered by this. The two cases presented are SEAMLESS User Forum with participants from the EU administration and the process of setting up assessments in test situations with regional administrations.The experience obtained from these interactions form a base for the discussion as to whether the design of SEAMLESS-IF is suited to contribute to an institutionalisation of a deliberative impact assessment process.
  • Elmqvist, Bodil, et al. (författare)
  • Does the EU renewable Energy Directive contribute to fair and just governance of the biofuel sector? A comparison between the Swedish national scheme and EU accredited voluntary schemes
  • 2012
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the search for viable pathways for transforming governance and institutions in the Rio+20 agenda,strengthening of public‐private governance networks has been emphasized. Important initiatives arefound in the expanding bioenergy sector where several certification schemes have been launched forensuring that bioenergy feedstock meet environmental and social requirements. These initiatives areencouraged by the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED). RED states that biofuels should replace10% of Europe's fossil fuel in transport by 2020. However, the production of bioliquids raises seriousenvironmental and social sustainability concerns in producer countries. In order to contribute to theEU targets, economic operators most comply with a set of sustainability criteria through one of threereporting schemes. This study, emphasizing the Swedish case as one of the first countries totranspose RED into national law, focuses on which reporting system is chosen by economic operatorsand on what grounds. Are social concerns such as labor rights, land and resource rights consideredimportant factors? Preliminary work show that the national scheme is stressing environmentalsustainability, showing fewer concerns of social aspects, while the EU recently accredited voluntarysystems, driven by a range of actors, are more transformational concerning the inclusion of socialconcerns in producer countries. The study contributes to the important question on how to promotenorth‐south justice and fairness aspects in governing a sustainable biofuel production by learningfrom the implementation of this potentially influential regulatory innovation.
  • Elmqvist, Bodil, et al. (författare)
  • Hållbarhetskrav på biodrivmedel
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: 15 nedslag i klimatforskningen : dåtid, nutid, framtid. - : Centrum för miljö- och klimatforskning, Lunds universitet. - 9789163723384 ; , s. 195-208
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)
  • Engström, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • Assessing uncertainties in global cropland futures using a conditional probabilistic modelling framework
  • Ingår i: Earth System Dynamics. - : Copernicus Gesellschaft mbH. - 2190-4979. ; 7:4, s. 893-915
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a modelling framework to simulate probabilistic futures of global cropland areas that are conditional on the SSP (shared socio-economic pathway) scenarios. Simulations are based on the Parsimonious Land Use Model (PLUM) linked with the global dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS (Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator) using socio-economic data from the SSPs and climate data from the RCPs (representative concentration pathways). The simulated range of global cropland is 893-2380 Mha in 2100 (± 1 standard deviation), with the main uncertainties arising from differences in the socio-economic conditions prescribed by the SSP scenarios and the assumptions that underpin the translation of qualitative SSP storylines into quantitative model input parameters. Uncertainties in the assumptions for population growth, technological change and cropland degradation were found to be the most important for global cropland, while uncertainty in food consumption had less influence on the results. The uncertainties arising from climate variability and the differences between climate change scenarios do not strongly affect the range of global cropland futures. Some overlap occurred across all of the conditional probabilistic futures, except for those based on SSP3. We conclude that completely different socio-economic and climate change futures, although sharing low to medium population development, can result in very similar cropland areas on the aggregated global scale.
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  • Föregående 12[3]45Nästa
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