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Sökning: WFRF:(Brogaard Sara)

  • Resultat 41-49 av 49
  • Föregående 1234[5]
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  • O Byrne, David, et al. (författare)
  • Points of contestation in the biofuels debate: Perspectives from selected international organizations in the post 2007/08 food price crises
  • 2015
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The 2007/08 food price crisis brought unprecedented international attention to the relationship between food and biofuels, and their competition over land. In this article we sought to understand how the international policy framing of the nexus of food, fuel and land has developed since the food price crisis. We undertook an analysis of major reports, since the crisis, by three international policy prescriptive organizations representing food security, energy security and climate change concerns: the FAO, IEA and UNEP respectively. We analysed the contents of these reports under three categories: the policy/normative outlook, policy measures, instruments and technology, and scenarios and predictions. We found that while the IEA has remained optimistic about the potential of biofuels to contribute to both climate change mitigation and energy security, relying particularly on second generation fuels supported by government subsidies to reduce competition with food for land resources, both the FAO and UNEP appear to be growing increasingly skeptical particularly in relation to rural development. Both the FAO and UNEP show concern growing over the period since the crisis, firstly that second generation fuels with not deliver on the promise of reduced competition and secondly that biofuels production is causing problems related to local land rights in the global south. Scenarios predicting biofuel market share showed increases shortly after the crisis but have levelled off. Scenarios predicting future land use change due to biofuels firstly became less precise and later this parameter was no longer modelled. We discuss what implications the divergent and uncertain discourse around biofuels from these organizations has for the future of biofuels as a sustainable alternative to fossil fuels at the international level.
  • Primmer, Eeva, et al. (författare)
  • Mapping Europe's institutional landscape for forest ecosystem service provision, innovations and governance
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Ecosystem Services. - : Elsevier. - 2212-0416. ; 47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There has been a strong quest for mapping and assessing ecosystem services (ES) to support governance. Yet, the institutional landscape that governs ES provision across multiple contexts has received less attention. We fill this research gap by developing and operationalising a framework for the analysis of policy documents that address European forest ES provision. By coding and analysing references to forest ES as well as innovations and governance mechanisms addressing these ES in national strategies on forest, biodiversity and bioeconomy, we map the institutional landscape of forest ES provision in Europe. We further analyse how biophysical supply of forest ES is connected to policies paying attention to ES and identifying innovations and governance for their provision. Innovations identified in policies centre around value chains of wood and bioenergy or biodiversity conservation, while non-wood forest products, cultural heritage, and recreation receive little attention. Biophysical supply of provisioning ES is connected to policies emphasising many innovations, while little supply of regulating ES could trigger service innovations and several new governance mechanisms. As forest ecosystems have received much attention in global, European and national sustainability policies, our institutional mapping illustrates that there is room for more use of innovations in promoting ES provision.
  • Runnström, Micael, et al. (författare)
  • Estimation of PAR over northern China from daily NOAA AVHRR cloud cover classifications
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Geocarto International. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1010-6049. ; 21:1, s. 51-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Incoming Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) is an essential variable for modelling aboveground primary production of ecosystems through the light-use efficiency approach. A method is presented where daily classifications of cloud cover (CLAVR) from the NOAA AVHRR satellite sensor is used to estimate surface incident short wave (SW) flux from which PAR can be assessed. The study area is the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) of northern China. Daily time steps of calculated theoretical incoming global radiation outside the atmosphere, is adjusted according to the clear, mixed or cloudy classification in the NOAA Pathfinder data set at 8x8 km grid-cells. For the different CLAVR classifications, empirical relationships to atmospheric transparency were established against ground measurements of SW flux. Clear pixels corresponded to an average 61% penetration of the theoretical radiation at the top of the atmosphere and mixed and cloudy pixels to 47% and 40% respectively. The CLAVR time series is evaluated regarding consistency and diurnal precision against measured SW flux and hours of bright sunshine. Modelled monthly fluxes over the growing season were acceptable compared to measured (NRMSE = 6. 6%) and about as good as deriving fluxes from measurements of bright sunshine hours. The global NOAA Pathfinder archive provides an opportunity to assess PAR over the past 20 years at a considerably higher spatial resolution than with methods based on geo-stationary meteorological satellite data sets and without interpolations from scarce measurements of bright sunshine hours.
  • Yengoh, Genesis Tambang, et al. (författare)
  • Explaining low yields and low food production in Cameroon : A farmers' perspective
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: GeoJournal. - : Springer. - 0343-2521. ; 79:3, s. 279-295
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While a bottom-up approach to identifying problems affecting food production among small-scale farmers has been urged as an appropriate means of finding sustainable solutions, few studies have determined the practical process of doing so and measured the outcomes of such an approach. This paper uses information gained mainly through focus groups with small-scale farmers and semi-structured interviews, to identify farmers' perceptions of reasons behind low yields and low agricultural production in three communities of Cameroon's North West region. Three biophysical factors are identified as the main reasons of low production: the long and more frequent dry spells and late start of the start of the rainy season. Three socio-economic reasons are identified as most important: land scarcity, money to invest in agriculture and labour scarcity. Farmers rank their reasons based on the importance to their agricultural production in their local area. Some of the important claims made by farmers are tested using field data and statistical analysis. These include the claims that: (1) the rainy season is increasingly starting later than it used to; and (2) the length of dry spells are increasingly longer than they used to be. The results of these statistical tests are significant, showing that farmers' knowledge of some of the local problems affecting their activities can serve as an important input into formal research and policy design. Peoples' understanding of a problem affects the way they will act on it-in terms of searching for solutions and implementing change. Farmers can therefore provide useful insights on why they think there are large yield gaps within their local production environments. The current agricultural development policy of the Cameroon government is advocating greater public-private engagement and can benefit from farmers' inputs and opinions in the design of relevant policies. In the same light, nonlocal based researchers and research institutions can draw on farmers' knowledge to create and accumulate knowledge on sustainable solutions to problems of low yields and low food production in Cameroon.
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  • Föregående 1234[5]
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