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Sökning: WFRF:(Burnet N)

  • Resultat 11-13 av 13
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11.
  • Burnet, N G, et al. (författare)
  • The relationship between cellular radiation sensitivity and tissue response may provide the basis for individualising radiotherapy schedules.
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. - 0167-8140. ; 33:3, s. 228-38
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is a wide variation in normal tissue reactions to radiotherapy and in many situations the severity of these reactions limits radiotherapy dose. Clinical fractionation studies carried out in Gothenburg have demonstrated that a large part of the spectrum of normal tissue reactions is due to differences in individual normal tissue sensitivity. If this variation in normal tissue reactions is due to differences in intrinsic cellular radiosensitivity, it should be possible to predict tissue response based on measurement of cellular sensitivity. Here we report the initial results of a study aimed at establishing whether a direct relationship exists between cellular radiosensitivity and tissue response. Ten fibroblasts strains, including four duplicates, were established from a group of patients in the Gothenburg fractionation trials who had received radiotherapy following mastectomy. Skin doses were measured and both acute and late skin changes were observed following radiotherapy. Right and left parasternal areas were treated with different dose fractionation schedules. Clonogenic assays were used to assess intrinsic cellular radiosensitivity, and all experiments were carried out without prior knowledge of the clinical response, or which strains were duplicates. Irradiation was carried out using 60Co gamma-rays at high dose-rate (HDR) of 1-2 Gy/min and low dose-rate (LDR) of 1 cGy/min. A spectrum of sensitivity was seen, with SF2 values of 0.17-0.28 at HDR and 0.25-0.34 at LDR, and values of D0.01 of 5.07-6.38 Gy at HDR and 6.43-8.12 Gy at LDR. Comparison of the in vitro results with the clinical normal tissue effects shows a correlation between cellular sensitivity and late tissue reactions, which is highly significant with p = 0.02. A correlation between cellular sensitivity and acute effects was noted in the left-sided parasternal fields, but not the right. This is thought to be coincidental, and without biological significance. Our results suggest that cellular sensitivity might form the basis for the development of an assay system capable of predicting late normal tissue effects to curative radiotherapy, which might allow dose escalation in some patients. Increased local control and cure, with unchanged or improved normal tissue complications, could result from such individualised radiotherapy prescriptions.
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12.
  • Carlomagno, F, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of DNA repair protein expression and activities between human fibroblast cell lines with different radiosensitivities.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. - 0020-7136. ; 85:6, s. 845-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In order to investigate the molecular basis of variation in response to ionising radiation (IR) in radiotherapy patients, we have studied the expression of several genes involved in DNA double-strand break repair pathways in fibroblast cell lines. Ten lines were established from skin biopsies of cancer patients with different normal-tissue reactions to IR, and 3 from a control individual. For all 10 test cell lines, the cellular radiosensitivity was also known. Using Western blots we measured, in non-irradiated cells, the basal expression levels of ATM, Rad1 and Hus1, involved in the control of cellular DNA damage checkpoints, together with DNA-PKcs, Ku70, Ku80; XRCC4, ligaseIV and Rad51, involved in radiation- induced DSB repair. We also analysed the in vitro enzymatic activities, under non-irradiated conditions, of the DNA-PK and XRCC4/ligaseIV complexes. The levels of expression of the different proteins were similar in all the cell lines, but the activities of the DNA-PK and XRCC4/ligaseIV complexes showed some differences. These differences did not correlate with either the normal tissue response of the patient in vivo or with cellular radiation sensitivity in vitro. The activity differences of these enzyme complexes, therefore, do not account for the variation of responses seen between patients.
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13.
  • Tulet, Pierre, et al. (författare)
  • First results of the Piton de la Fournaise STRAP 2015 experiment: multidisciplinary tracking of a volcanic gas and aerosol plume
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 17:8, s. 5355-5378
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The STRAP (Synergie Transdisciplinaire pour Répondre aux Aléas liés aux Panaches volcaniques) campaign was conducted in 2015 to investigate the volcanic plumes of Piton de La Fournaise (La Réunion, France). For the first time, measurements at the local (near the vent) and at the regional scales around the island were conducted. The STRAP 2015 campaign has become possible thanks to a strong cross-disciplinary collaboration between volcanologists and meteorologists. The main observations during four eruptive periods (85 days) are summarized. They include the estimates of SO2, CO2 and H2O emissions, the altitude of the plume at the vent and over different areas of La Réunion Island, the evolution of the SO2 concentration, the aerosol size distribution, and the aerosol extinction profile. A climatology of the volcanic plume dispersion is also reported. Simulations and measurements showed that the plume formed by weak eruption has a stronger interaction with the surface of the island. Strong SO2 and particles concentrations above 1000 ppb and 50 000 cm−3, respectively, are frequently measured over 20 km of distance from the Piton de la Fournaise. The measured aerosol size distribution shows the predominance of small particles in the volcanic plume. A particular emphasis is placed on the gas-particle conversion with several cases of strong nucleation of sulfuric acid observed within the plume and at the distal site of the Maïdo observatory. The STRAP 2015 campaign gave a unique set of multi-disciplinary data that can now be used by modellers to improve the numerical paramameterizations of the physical and chemical evolution of the volcanic plumes.
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  • Resultat 11-13 av 13
  • Föregående 1[2]
 
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