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Sökning: WFRF:(Burrows C.)

  • Resultat 21-30 av 64
  • Föregående 12[3]4567Nästa
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  • Ralet, D., et al. (författare)
  • Evidence of octupole-phonons at high spin in Pb-207
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 797
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A lifetime measurement of the 19/2(-) state in Pb-207 has been performed using the Recoil Distance Doppler-Shift (RDDS) method. The nuclei of interest were produced in multi-nucleon transfer reactions induced by a Pb-208 beam impinging on a Mo-100 enriched target. The beam-like nuclei were detected and identified in terms of their atomic mass number in the VAMOS++ spectrometer while the prompt gamma rays were detected by the AGATA tracking array. The measured large reduced transition probability B(E3, 19/2(-) -> 13/2(+)) = 40(8) W.u. is the first indication of the octupole phonon at high spin in Pb-207. An analysis in terms of a particle-octupole-vibration coupling model indicates that the measured B(E3) value in Pb-207 is compatible with the contributions from single-phonon and single particle E3 as well as E3 strength arising from the double-octupole-phonon 6(+) state, all adding coherently. A crucial aspect of the coupling model, namely the strong mixing between single-hole and the phonon-hole states, is confirmed in a realistic shell-model calculation. Crown Copyright (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Buchwitz, M., et al. (författare)
  • The Greenhouse Gas Climate Change Initiative (GHG-CCI) : Comparison and quality assessment of near-surface-sensitive satellite-derived CO2 and CH4 global data sets
  • Ingår i: Remote Sensing of Environment. - : Elsevier. - 0034-4257. ; 162, s. 344-362
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The GHG-CCI project is one of several projects of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI). The goal of the CCI is to generate and deliver data sets of various satellite-derived Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) in line with GCOS (Global Climate Observing System) requirements. The "ECV Greenhouse Gases" (ECV GHG) is the global distribution of important climate relevant gases - atmospheric CO2 and CH4 - with a quality sufficient to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks. Two satellite instruments deliver the main input data for GHG-CCI: SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT and TANSO-FTS/GOSAT. The first order priority goal of GHG-CCI is the further development of retrieval algorithms for near-surface-sensitive column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, denoted XCO2 and XCH4, to meet the demanding user requirements. GHG-CCI focuses on four core data products: XCO2 from SCIAMACHY and TANSO and XCH4 from the same two sensors. For each of the four core data products at least two candidate retrieval algorithms have been independently further developed and the corresponding data products have been quality-assessed and inter-compared. This activity is referred to as "Round Robin" (RR) activity within the CCI. The main goal of the RR was to identify for each of the four core products which algorithms should be used to generate the Climate Research Data Package (CRDP). The CRDP will essentially be the first version of the ECV GHG. This manuscript gives an overview of the GHG-CCI RR and related activities. This comprises the establishment of the user requirements, the improvement of the candidate retrieval algorithms and comparisons with ground-based observations and models. The manuscript summarizes the final RR algorithm selection decision and its justification. Comparison with ground-based Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) data indicates that the "breakthrough" single measurement precision requirement has been met for SCIAMACHY and TANSO XCO2 (<3ppm) and TANSO XCH4 (<17ppb). The achieved relative accuracy for XCH4 is 3-15ppb for SCIAMACHY and 2-8ppb for TANSO depending on algorithm and time period. Meeting the 0.5ppm systematic error requirement for XCO2 remains a challenge: approximately 1ppm has been achieved at the validation sites but also larger differences have been found in regions remote from TCCON. More research is needed to identify the causes for the observed differences. In this context GHG-CCI suggests taking advantage of the ensemble of existing data products, for example, via the EnseMble Median Algorithm (EMMA).
  • Cederwall, B., et al. (författare)
  • Isospin Properties of Nuclear Pair Correlations from the Level Structure of the Self-Conjugate Nucleus Ru-88
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ; 124:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The low-lying energy spectrum of the extremely neutron-deficient self-conjugate (N = Z) nuclide Ru-88(44)44 has been measured using the combination of the Advanced Gamma Tracking Array (AGATA) spectrometer, the NEDA and Neutron Wall neutron detector arrays, and the DIAMANT charged particle detector array. Excited states in Ru-88 were populated via the Fe-54(Ar-36, 2n gamma)Ru-88* fusion-evaporation reaction at the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL) accelerator complex. The observed gamma-ray cascade is assigned to Ru-88 using clean prompt gamma-gamma-2-neutron coincidences in anticoincidence with the detection of charged particles, confirming and extending the previously assigned sequence of low-lying excited states. It is consistent with a moderately deformed rotating system exhibiting a band crossing at a rotational frequency that is significantly higher than standard theoretical predictions with isovector pairing, as well as observations in neighboring N > Z nuclides. The direct observation of such a "delayed" rotational alignment in a deformed N = Z nucleus is in agreement with theoretical predictions related to the presence of strong isoscalar neutron-proton pair correlations.
  • Podolyák, Zs, et al. (författare)
  • Role of the Δ Resonance in the Population of a Four-Nucleon State in the 56Fe → 54Fe Reaction at Relativistic Energies
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 0031-9007. ; 117:22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Fe54 nucleus was populated from a 56Fe beam impinging on a Be target with an energy of E/A=500 MeV. The internal decay via γ-ray emission of the 10+ metastable state was observed. As the structure of this isomeric state has to involve at least four unpaired nucleons, it cannot be populated in a simple two-neutron removal reaction from the 56Fe ground state. The isomeric state was produced in the low-momentum (-energy) tail of the parallel momentum (energy) distribution of 54Fe, suggesting that it was populated via the decay of the Δ0 resonance into a proton. This process allows the population of four-nucleon states, such as the observed isomer. Therefore, it is concluded that the observation of this 10+ metastable state in 54Fe is a consequence of the quark structure of the nucleons.
  • Starling, R. L. C., et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of the nearby long, soft GRB 100316D with an associated supernova
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 411:4, s. 2792-2803
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the Swift discovery of the nearby long, soft gamma-ray burst GRB 100316D, and the subsequent unveiling of its low-redshift host galaxy and associated supernova. We derive the redshift of the event to be z = 0.0591 +/- 0.0001 and provide accurate astrometry for the gamma-ray burst (GRB) supernova (SN). We study the extremely unusual prompt emission with time-resolved gamma-ray to X-ray spectroscopy and find that the spectrum is best modelled with a thermal component in addition to a synchrotron emission component with a low peak energy. The X-ray light curve has a remarkably shallow decay out to at least 800 s. The host is a bright, blue galaxy with a highly disturbed morphology and we use Gemini-South, Very Large Telescope and Hubble Space Telescope observations to measure some of the basic host galaxy properties. We compare and contrast the X-ray emission and host galaxy of GRB 100316D to a subsample of GRB-SNe. GRB 100316D is unlike the majority of GRB-SNe in its X-ray evolution, but resembles rather GRB 060218, and we find that these two events have remarkably similar high energy prompt emission properties. Comparison of the host galaxies of GRB-SNe demonstrates, however, that there is a great diversity in the environments in which GRB-SNe can be found. GRB 100316D is an important addition to the currently sparse sample of spectroscopically confirmed GRB-SNe, from which a better understanding of long GRB progenitors and the GRB-SN connection can be gleaned.
  • Abellán, F. J., et al. (författare)
  • Very Deep inside the SN 1987A Core Ejecta : Molecular Structures Seen in 3D
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - : Institute of Physics Publishing. - 2041-8205 .- 2041-8213. ; 842:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most massive stars end their lives in core-collapse supernova explosions and enrich the interstellar medium with explosively nucleosynthesized elements. Following core collapse, the explosion is subject to instabilities as the shock propagates outward through the progenitor star. Observations of the composition and structure of the innermost regions of a core-collapse supernova provide a direct probe of the instabilities and nucleosynthetic products. SN 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud is one of very few supernovae for which the inner ejecta can be spatially resolved but are not yet strongly affected by interaction with the surroundings. Our observations of SN 1987A with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array are of the highest resolution to date and reveal the detailed morphology of cold molecular gas in the innermost regions of the remnant. The 3D distributions of carbon and silicon monoxide (CO and SiO) emission differ, but both have a central deficit, or torus-like distribution, possibly a result of radioactive heating during the first weeks (nickel heating). The size scales of the clumpy distribution are compared quantitatively to models, demonstrating how progenitor and explosion physics can be constrained.
  • Evans, P. A., et al. (författare)
  • Swift and NuSTAR observations of GW170817 : Detection of a blue kilonova
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 358:6370, s. 1565-1569
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With the first direct detection of merging black holes in 2015, the era of gravitational wave (GW) astrophysics began. A complete picture of compact object mergers, however, requires the detection of an electromagnetic (EM) counterpart. We report ultraviolet (UV) and x-ray observations by Swift and the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array of the EM counter part of the binary neutron star merger GW170817. The bright, rapidly fading UV emission indicates a high mass (approximate to 0.03 solar masses) wind-driven outflow with moderate electron fraction (Y-e approximate to 0.27). Combined with the x-ray limits, we favor an observer viewing angle of approximate to 30 degrees away from the orbital rotation axis, which avoids both obscuration from the heaviest elements in the orbital plane and a direct view of any ultrarelativistic, highly collimated ejecta (a gamma-ray burst afterglow).
  • Hawkins, Stephen J., et al. (författare)
  • The Intertidal Zone of the North-East Atlantic Region
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Interactions in the Marine Benthos: Global Patterns and Processes (Systematics Association Special Volume Series, pp. 7-46). - : Cambridge university press. - 9781108416085
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
  • Indebetouw, R., et al. (författare)
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8213 .- 2041-8205. ; 782:1, s. 6-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Supernova (SN) explosions are crucial engines driving the evolution of galaxies by shock heating gas, increasing the metallicity, creating dust, and accelerating energetic particles. In 2012 we used the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array to observe SN 1987A, one of the best-observed supernovae since the invention of the telescope. We present spatially resolved images at 450 mu m, 870 mu m, 1.4 mm, and 2.8 mm, an important transition wavelength range. Longer wavelength emission is dominated by synchrotron radiation from shock-accelerated particles, shorter wavelengths by emission from the largest mass of dust measured in a supernova remnant (>0.2 M-circle dot). For the first time we show unambiguously that this dust has formed in the inner ejecta (the cold remnants of the exploded star's core). The dust emission is concentrated at the center of the remnant, so the dust has not yet been affected by the shocks. If a significant fraction survives, and if SN 1987A is typical, supernovae are important cosmological dust producers.
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  • Föregående 12[3]4567Nästa
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