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Sökning: WFRF:(Burrows C.)

  • Resultat 31-40 av 64
  • Föregående 123[4]567Nästa
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31.
  • Meixner, Margaret, et al. (författare)
  • Herschel and ALMA measurements of dust and molecules in supernova 1987A
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of Science. - 1824-8039. ; Part F113823
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dust production by supernovae is important in the dust life cycle of a galaxy. The explosion of SN 1987A was the nearest SN detected in the last 400 years, allowing us detailed studies of contemporary evolution of a supernova for the first time. In 2011, Matsuura et al. reported 0.4-0.7 M of dust in SN 1987A based on Herschel HERITAGE survey data, which is surprisingly large compared to prior measurements of supernovae. In this paper, we present our follow-up studies of this important discovery about SN 1987A using the Herschel Space Observatory and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). We highlight two important results, the detection of cold molecular gas and dust in the ejected material of SN 1987A. Our results suggest that SNe are significant producers of dust and molecules, as well as heavy elements, driving chemical evolution of galaxies.
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32.
  • Sheese, P. E., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of ACE-FTS version 3.5 NO y species profiles using correlative satellite measurements
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. - 1867-1381 .- 1867-8548. ; 9:12, s. 5781-5810
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer) instrument on the Canadian SCISAT satellite, which has been in operation for over 12 years, has the capability of deriving stratospheric profiles of many of the NOy (N + NO + NO2 + NO3 + 2 x N2O5 + HNO3 + HNO4 + ClONO2 + BrONO2) species. Version 2.2 of ACE-FTS NO, NO2, HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2 has previously been validated, and this study compares the most recent version (v3.5) of these five ACE-FTS products to spatially and temporally coincident measurements from other satellite instruments - GOMOS, HALOE, MAESTRO, MIPAS, MLS, OSIRIS, POAM III, SAGE III, SCIAMACHY, SMILES, and SMR. For each ACE-FTS measurement, a photochemical box model was used to simulate the diurnal variations of the NOy species and the ACE-FTS measurements were scaled to the local times of the coincident measurements. The comparisons for all five species show good agreement with correlative satellite measurements. For
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33.
  • Buchwitz, M., et al. (författare)
  • The GHG-CCI project of ESA's climate change initiative : Data products and application
  • Ingår i: Living Planet Symposium 2016,Prague, Czech Republic,2016-05-09 - 2016-05-13. - : European Space Agency. ; SP-740
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The goal of the GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org/) of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI) is to generate global atmospheric satellite-derived carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) data sets as needed to improve our understanding of the regional sources and sinks of these important greenhouse gases (GHG). Here we present an overview about the latest data set called Climate Research Data Package No. 3 (CRDP3). We focus on the GHG-CCI project core data products, which are near-surface-sensitive column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, denoted XCO2 (in ppm) and XCH4 (in ppb) retrieved from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT (2002-2012) and TANSO-FTS/GOSAT (2009-today) nadir mode radiance observations in the near-infrared/shortwave-infrared spectral region. The GHG-CCI products are primarily individual sensor Level 2 products. However, we also generate merged Level 2 products ("EMMA products"). Here we also present a first GHG-CCI Level 3 product, namely XCO2 and XCH4 in Obs4MIPs format (monthly, 5°×5°).
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34.
  • Buchwitz, M., et al. (författare)
  • The greenhouse gas project of Esa's climate change initiative (GHG-CCI) : Overview, achievements and future plans
  • 2015. - 7W3
  • Ingår i: 2015 36th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment,Berlin, Germany,2015-05-11 - 2015-05-15. ; 40, s. 165-172
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org/) is one of several projects of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI). The goal of the CCI is to generate and deliver data sets of various satellite-derived Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) in line with GCOS (Global Climate Observing System) requirements. The "ECV Greenhouse Gases" (ECV GHG) is the global distribution of important climate relevant gases-namely atmospheric CO2 and CH4-with a quality sufficient to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks. The main goal of GHG-CCI is to generate long-term highly accurate and precise time series of global near-surface-sensitive satellite observations of CO2 and CH4, i.e., XCO2 and XCH4, starting with the launch of ESA's ENVISAT satellite. These products are currently retrieved from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT (2002-2012) and TANSO-FTS/GOSAT (2009-today) nadir mode observations in the near-infrared/shortwave-infrared spectral region. In addition, other sensors (e.g., IASI and MIPAS) and viewing modes (e.g., SCIAMACHY solar occultation) are also considered and in the future also data from other satellites. The GHG-CCI data products and related documentation are freely available via the GHG-CCI website and yearly updates are foreseen. Here we present an overview about the latest data set (Climate Research Data Package No. 2 (CRDP#2)) and summarize key findings from using satellite CO2 and CH4 retrievals to improve our understanding of the natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks of these important atmospheric greenhouse gases. We also shortly mention ongoing activities related to validation and initial user assessment of CRDP#2 and future plans.
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35.
  • Cigan, Phil, et al. (författare)
  • High Angular Resolution ALMA Images of Dust and Molecules in the SN 1987A Ejecta
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : Institute of Physics (IOP). - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 886:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present high angular resolution (similar to 80 mas) ALMA continuum images of the SN.1987A system, together with CO J = 2 -> 1, J = 6 -> 5, and SiO J = 5 -> 4 to J = 7 -> 6 images, which clearly resolve the ejecta (dust continuum and molecules) and ring (synchrotron continuum) components. Dust in the ejecta is asymmetric and clumpy, and overall the dust fills the spatial void seen in H alpha images, filling that region with material from heavier elements. The dust clumps generally fill the space where CO J = 6 -> 5 is fainter, tentatively indicating that these dust clumps and CO are locationally and chemically linked. In these regions, carbonaceous dust grains might have formed after dissociation of CO. The dust grains would have cooled by radiation, and subsequent collisions of grains with gas would also cool the gas, suppressing the CO J = 6 -> 5 intensity. The data show a dust peak spatially coincident with the molecular hole seen in previous ALMA CO J = 2 -> 1 and SiO J = 5 -> 4 images. That dust peak, combined with CO and SiO line spectra, suggests that the dust and gas could be at higher temperatures than the surrounding material, though higher density cannot be totally excluded. One of the possibilities is that a compact source provides additional heat at that location. Fits to the far-infrared-millimeter spectral energy distribution give ejecta dust temperatures of 18-23 K. We revise the ejecta dust mass to M-dust = 0.2-0.4 M-circle dot for carbon or silicate grains, or a maximum of <0.7 M-circle dot for a mixture of grain species, using the predicted nucleosynthesis yields as an upper limit.
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36.
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37.
  • Indebetouw, R. (författare)
  • DUST PRODUCTION AND PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN SUPERNOVA 1987A REVEALED WITH ALMA
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The Astrophysical Journal Letters. - : Institute of Physics (IOP). - 2041-8205. ; 782:1, s. L2-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Supernova (SN) explosions are crucial engines driving the evolution of galaxies by shock heating gas, increasing the metallicity, creating dust, and accelerating energetic particles. In 2012 we used the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array to observe SN 1987A, one of the best-observed supernovae since the invention of the telescope. We present spatially resolved images at 450 mu m, 870 mu m, 1.4 mm, and 2.8 mm, an important transition wavelength range. Longer wavelength emission is dominated by synchrotron radiation from shock-accelerated particles, shorter wavelengths by emission from the largest mass of dust measured in a supernova remnant (>0.2 M-circle dot). For the first time we show unambiguously that this dust has formed in the inner ejecta (the cold remnants of the exploded star's core). The dust emission is concentrated at the center of the remnant, so the dust has not yet been affected by the shocks. If a significant fraction survives, and if SN 1987A is typical, supernovae are important cosmological dust producers.
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38.
  • Lossow, Stefan, 1977, et al. (författare)
  • The SPARC water vapour assessment II: Profile-to-profile comparisons of stratospheric and lower mesospheric water vapour data sets obtained from satellites
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. - 1867-1381 .- 1867-8548. ; 12:5, s. 2693-2732
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Within the framework of the second SPARC (Stratosphere-troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate) water vapour assessment (WAVAS-II), profile-to-profile comparisons of stratospheric and lower mesospheric water vapour were performed by considering 33 data sets derived from satellite observations of 15 different instruments. These comparisons aimed to provide a picture of the typical biases and drifts in the observational database and to identify data-set-specific problems. The observational database typically exhibits the largest biases below 70 hPa, both in absolute and relative terms. The smallest biases are often found between 50 and 5 hPa. Typically, they range from 0.25 to 0.5 ppmv (5 % to 10 %) in this altitude region, based on the 50 % percentile over the different comparison results. Higher up, the biases increase with altitude overall but this general behaviour is accompanied by considerable variations. Characteristic values vary between 0.3 and 1 ppmv (4 % to 20 %). Obvious data-set-specific bias issues are found for a number of data sets. In our work we performed a drift analysis for data sets overlapping for a period of at least 36 months. This assessment shows a wide range of drifts among the different data sets that are statistically significant at the 2 σ uncertainty level. In general, the smallest drifts are found in the altitude range between about 30 and 10 hPa. Histograms considering results from all altitudes indicate the largest occurrence for drifts between 0.05 and 0.3 ppmv decade-1. Comparisons of our drift estimates to those derived from comparisons of zonal mean time series only exhibit statistically significant differences in slightly more than 3 % of the comparisons. Hence, drift estimates from profile-to-profile and zonal mean time series comparisons are largely interchangeable. As for the biases, a number of data sets exhibit prominent drift issues. In our analyses we found that the large number of MIPAS data sets included in the assessment affects our general results as well as the bias summaries we provide for the individual data sets. This is because these data sets exhibit a relative similarity with respect to the remaining data sets, despite the fact that they are based on different measurement modes and different processors implementing different retrieval choices. Because of that, we have by default considered an aggregation of the comparison results obtained from MIPAS data sets. Results without this aggregation are provided on multiple occasions to characterise the effects due to the numerous MIPAS data sets. Among other effects, they cause a reduction of the typical biases in the observational database.
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39.
  • Reisin, E. R., et al. (författare)
  • Traveling planetary wave activity from mesopause region airglow temperatures determined by the Network for the Detection of Mesospheric Change (NDMC)
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics. - 1364-6826 .- 1879-1824. ; 119, s. 71-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The global distribution of traveling planetary wave (PW) activity in the mesopause region is estimated for the first time from ground-based airglow measurements. Monthly and total mean climatologies of PW power are determined from rotational temperatures measured at 19 sites from 78 degrees N to 76 degrees S which contribute to the Network for the Detection of Mesospheric Change (NDMC). Wave power is expressed as the standard deviation of nocturnal mean temperature around the seasonal temperature variation. The results from 20 degrees N confirm the SABER traveling PW proxy by Offermann et al. (2009, J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06110) at two altitudes. Most sites between 69 degrees S and 69 degrees N show total mean traveling PW activity of about 6 K, and only some high latitude sites have considerably higher activity levels. At the two tropical sites, there is practically no seasonal variation of PW activity. At 70% of the midlatitude sites, the seasonal variation is moderate for most of the year, but it is quite appreciable at all high latitude sites. Results about traveling PW activity at 87 km and 95 km available from several sites signal similar behavior at both altitudes. The total mean climatological results here obtained have further been used to separate the traveling PW contribution from the superposition of wave types contained in OH rotational temperature fluctuations measured by the SCIAMACHY instrument on Envisat. A narrow equatorial wave activity maximum is probably caused by gravity waves, while a tendency towards greater activity at higher northern latitudes may be due to stationary planetary waves.
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40.
  • Spolaor, A., et al. (författare)
  • Seasonality of halogen deposition in polar snow and ice
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The atmospheric chemistry of iodine and bromine in Polar regions is of interest due to the key role of halogens in many atmospheric processes, particularly tropospheric ozone destruction. Bromine is emitted from the open ocean but is enriched above first-year sea ice during springtime bromine explosion events, whereas iodine emission is at- tributed to biological communities in the open ocean and hosted by sea ice. It has been previously demonstrated that bromine and iodine are present in Antarctic ice over glacial– interglacial cycles. Here we investigate seasonal variability of bromine and iodine in polar snow and ice, to evaluate their emission, transport and deposition in Antarctica and the Arc- tic and better understand potential links to sea ice. We find that bromine and iodine concentrations and Br enrichment (relative to sea salt content) in polar ice do vary seasonally in Arctic snow and Antarctic ice. Although seasonal vari- ability in halogen emission sources is recorded by satellite- based observations of tropospheric halogen concentrations, seasonal patterns observed in snowpack are likely also in- fluenced by photolysis-driven processes. Peaks of bromine concentration and Br enrichment in Arctic snow and Antarc- tic ice occur in spring and summer, when sunlight is present. A secondary bromine peak, observed at the end of summer, is attributed to bromine deposition at the end of the polar day. Iodine concentrations are largest in winter Antarctic ice strata, contrary to contemporary observations of summer maxima in iodine emissions. These findings support previous observations of iodine peaks in winter snow strata attributed to the absence of sunlight-driven photolytic re-mobilisation of iodine from surface snow. Further investigation is required to confirm these proposed mechanisms explaining observa- tions of halogens in polar snow and ice, and to evaluate the extent to which halogens may be applied as sea ice proxies.
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