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  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Fermi Large Area Telescope Gamma-Ray Detection of the Radio Galaxy M87
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. - 0004-637X ; 707:1, s. 55-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) discovery of high-energy (MeV/GeV) γ-ray emission positionally consistent with the center of the radio galaxy M87, at a source significance of over 10σ in 10 months of all-sky survey data. Following the detections of Cen A and Per A, this makes M87 the third radio galaxy seen with the LAT. The faint point-like γ-ray source has a >100 MeV flux of 2.45 (±0.63) × 10–8 photons cm–2 s–1 (photon index = 2.26 ± 0.13) with no significant variability detected within the LAT observation. This flux is comparable with the previous EGRET upper limit (<2.18 × 10–8 photons cm–2 s–1, 2σ), thus there is no evidence for a significant MeV/GeV flare on decade timescales. Contemporaneous Chandra and Very Long Baseline Array data indicate low activity in the unresolved X-ray and radio core relative to previous observations, suggesting M87 is in a quiescent overall level over the first year of Fermi-LAT observations. The LAT γ-ray spectrum is modeled as synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission from the electron population producing the radio-to-X-ray emission in the core. The resultant SSC spectrum extrapolates smoothly from the LAT band to the historical-minimum TeV emission. Alternative models for the core and possible contributions from the kiloparsec-scale jet in M87 are considered, and cannot be excluded.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 719:2, s. 1433-1444
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present gamma-ray observations with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope of the nearby radio galaxy Centaurus A (Cen A). The previous EGRET detection is confirmed, and the localization is improved using data from the first 10 months of Fermi science operation. In previous work, we presented the detection of the lobes by the LAT; in this work, we concentrate on the gamma-ray core of Cen A. Flux levels as seen by the LAT are not significantly different from that found by EGRET, nor is the extremely soft LAT spectrum (Gamma = 2.67 +/- 0.10(stat) +/- 0.08(sys) where the photon flux is Phi alpha E-Gamma). The LAT core spectrum, extrapolated to higher energies, is marginally consistent with the non-simultaneous HESS spectrum of the source. The LAT observations are complemented by simultaneous observations from Suzaku, the Swift Burst Alert Telescope and X-ray Telescope, and radio observations with the Tracking Active Galactic Nuclei with Austral Milliarcsecond Interferometry program, along with a variety of non-simultaneous archival data from a variety of instruments and wavelengths to produce a spectral energy distribution (SED). We fit this broadband data set with a single-zone synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton model, which describes the radio through GeV emission well, but fails to account for the non-simultaneous higher energy TeV emission observed by HESS from 2004 to 2008. The fit requires a low Doppler factor, in contrast to BL Lac objects which generally require larger values to fit their broadband SEDs. This indicates that the gamma-ray emission originates from a slower region than that from BL Lac objects, consistent with previous modeling results from Cen A. This slower region could be a slower moving layer around a fast spine, or a slower region farther out from the black hole in a decelerating flow. The fit parameters are also consistent with Cen A being able to accelerate ultra-high energy cosmic-rays, as hinted at by results from the Auger observatory.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Gamma-Ray Flares from the Crab Nebula
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075. ; 331:6018, s. 739-742
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A young and energetic pulsar powers the well-known Crab Nebula. Here, we describe two separate gamma-ray (photon energy greater than 100 mega-electron volts) flares from this source detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The first flare occurred in February 2009 and lasted approximately 16 days. The second flare was detected in September 2010 and lasted approximately 4 days. During these outbursts, the gamma-ray flux from the nebula increased by factors of four and six, respectively. The brevity of the flares implies that the gamma rays were emitted via synchrotron radiation from peta-electron-volt (10(15) electron volts) electrons in a region smaller than 1.4 x 10(-2) parsecs. These are the highest-energy particles that can be associated with a discrete astronomical source, and they pose challenges to particle acceleration theory.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • The first catalog of active galactic nuclei detected by the Fermi large area telescope
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 715:1, s. 429-457
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the first catalog of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), corresponding to 11 months of data collected in scientific operation mode. The First LAT AGN Catalog (1LAC) includes 671 gamma-ray sources located at high Galactic latitudes (|b| > 10 degrees) that are detected with a test statistic greater than 25 and associated statistically with AGNs. Some LAT sources are associated with multiple AGNs, and consequently, the catalog includes 709 AGNs, comprising 300 BL Lacertae objects, 296 flat-spectrum radio quasars, 41 AGNs of other types, and 72 AGNs of unknown type. We also classify the blazars based on their spectral energy distributions as archival radio, optical, and X-ray data permit. In addition to the formal 1LAC sample, we provide AGN associations for 51 low-latitude LAT sources and AGN "affiliations" (unquantified counterpart candidates) for 104 high-latitude LAT sources without AGN associations. The overlap of the 1LAC with existing gamma-ray AGN catalogs (LBAS, EGRET, AGILE, Swift, INTEGRAL, TeVCat) is briefly discussed. Various properties-such as gamma-ray fluxes and photon power-law spectral indices, redshifts, gamma-ray luminosities, variability, and archival radio luminosities-and their correlations are presented and discussed for the different blazar classes. We compare the 1LAC results with predictions regarding the gamma-ray AGN populations, and we comment on the power of the sample to address the question of the blazar sequence.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 730:2, s. 101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on observations of BL Lacertae during the first 18 months of Fermi LAT science operations and present results from a 48 day multifrequency coordinated campaign from 2008 August 19 to 2008 October 7. The radio to gamma-ray behavior of BL Lac is unveiled during a low-activity state thanks to the coordinated observations of radio-band (Metsahovi and VLBA), near-IR/optical (Tuorla, Steward, OAGH, and MDM), and X-ray (RXTE and Swift) observatories. No variability was resolved in gamma rays during the campaign, and the brightness level was 15 times lower than the level of the 1997 EGRET outburst. Moderate and uncorrelated variability has been detected in UV and X-rays. The X-ray spectrum is found to be concave, indicating the transition region between the low- and high-energy components of the spectral energy distribution (SED). VLBA observation detected a synchrotron spectrum self-absorption turnover in the innermost part of the radio jet appearing to be elongated and inhomogeneous, and constrained the average magnetic field there to be less than 3 G. Over the following months, BL Lac appeared variable in gamma rays, showing flares (in 2009 April and 2010 January). There is no evidence for the correlation of gamma rays with the optical flux monitored from the ground in 18 months. The SED may be described by a single-zone or a two-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, but a hybrid SSC plus external radiation Compton model seems to be preferred based on the observed variability and the fact that it provides a fit closest to equipartition.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of misaligned active galactic nuclei
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 720:1, s. 912-922
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Analysis is presented for 15 months of data taken with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope for 11 non-blazar active galactic nuclei (AGNs), including seven FRI radio galaxies and four FRII radio sources consisting of two FRII radio galaxies and two steep spectrum radio quasars. The broad line FRI radio galaxy 3C 120 is reported here as a gamma-ray source for the first time. The analysis is based on directional associations of LAT sources with radio sources in the 3CR, 3CRR, and MS4 (collectively referred to as 3C-MS) catalogs. Seven of the eleven LAT sources associated with 3C-MS radio sources have spectral indices larger than 2.3 and, except for the FRI radio galaxy NGC 1275 that shows possible spectral curvature, are well described by a power law. No evidence for time variability is found for any sources other than NGC 1275. The gamma-ray luminosities of FRI radio galaxies are significantly smaller than those of the BL Lac objects detected by the LAT, whereas the gamma-ray luminosities of the FRII sources are quite similar to those of FSRQs, which could reflect different beaming factors for the gamma-ray emission. A core dominance (CD) study of the 3CRR sample indicates that sources closer to the jet axis are preferentially detected with the Fermi LAT, insofar as the gamma-ray-detected misaligned AGNs have larger CD at a given average radio flux. The results are discussed in view of the AGN unification scenario.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8205. ; 714:1, s. L73-L78
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the light curves and spectral data of two exceptionally luminous gamma-ray outbursts observed by the Large Area Telescope experiment on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope from 3C 273 in 2009 September. During these flares, having a duration of a few days, the source reached its highest gamma-ray flux ever measured. This allowed us to study, in some details, their spectral and temporal structures. The rise and the decay are asymmetric on timescales of 6 hr, and the spectral index was significantly harder during the flares than during the preceding 11 months. We also found that short, very intense flares put out the same time-integrated energy as long, less intense flares like that observed in 2009 August.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Fermi-large area telescope observations of the exceptional gamma-ray outbursts of 3C 273 in 2009 September
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS. - 2041-8205. ; 714:1, s. L73-L78
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the light curves and spectral data of two exceptionally luminous gamma-ray outbursts observed by the Large Area Telescope experiment on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope from 3C 273 in 2009 September. During these flares, having a duration of a few days, the source reached its highest gamma-ray flux ever measured. This allowed us to study, in some details, their spectral and temporal structures. The rise and the decay are asymmetric on timescales of 6 hr, and the spectral index was significantly harder during the flares than during the preceding 11 months. We also found that short, very intense flares put out the same time-integrated energy as long, less intense flares like that observed in 2009 August.
  • Hibar, D. P., et al. (författare)
  • Cortical abnormalities in bipolar disorder: An MRI analysis of 6503 individuals from the ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184. ; 23:4, s. 932-942
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite decades of research, the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) is still not well understood. Structural brain differences have been associated with BD, but results from neuroimaging studies have been inconsistent. To address this, we performed the largest study to date of cortical gray matter thickness and surface area measures from brain magnetic resonance imaging scans of 6503 individuals including 1837 unrelated adults with BD and 2582 unrelated healthy controls for group differences while also examining the effects of commonly prescribed medications, age of illness onset, history of psychosis, mood state, age and sex differences on cortical regions. In BD, cortical gray matter was thinner in frontal, temporal and parietal regions of both brain hemispheres. BD had the strongest effects on left pars opercularis (Cohen's d='0.293; P=1.71 × 10 '21), left fusiform gyrus (d='0.288; P=8.25 × 10 '21) and left rostral middle frontal cortex (d='0.276; P=2.99 × 10 '19). Longer duration of illness (after accounting for age at the time of scanning) was associated with reduced cortical thickness in frontal, medial parietal and occipital regions. We found that several commonly prescribed medications, including lithium, antiepileptic and antipsychotic treatment showed significant associations with cortical thickness and surface area, even after accounting for patients who received multiple medications. We found evidence of reduced cortical surface area associated with a history of psychosis but no associations with mood state at the time of scanning. Our analysis revealed previously undetected associations and provides an extensive analysis of potential confounding variables in neuroimaging studies of BD. © 2018 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.
  • Savage, J. E., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association meta-analysis in 269,867 individuals identifies new genetic and functional links to intelligence
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036. ; 50:7, s. 912-919
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intelligence is highly heritable 1 and a major determinant of human health and well-being 2 . Recent genome-wide meta-analyses have identified 24 genomic loci linked to variation in intelligence 3-7, but much about its genetic underpinnings remains to be discovered. Here, we present a large-scale genetic association study of intelligence (n = 269,867), identifying 205 associated genomic loci (190 new) and 1,016 genes (939 new) via positional mapping, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping, chromatin interaction mapping, and gene-based association analysis. We find enrichment of genetic effects in conserved and coding regions and associations with 146 nonsynonymous exonic variants. Associated genes are strongly expressed in the brain, specifically in striatal medium spiny neurons and hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Gene set analyses implicate pathways related to nervous system development and synaptic structure. We confirm previous strong genetic correlations with multiple health-related outcomes, and Mendelian randomization analysis results suggest protective effects of intelligence for Alzheimer's disease and ADHD and bidirectional causation with pleiotropic effects for schizophrenia. These results are a major step forward in understanding the neurobiology of cognitive function as well as genetically related neurological and psychiatric disorders.
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