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  • Ackermann, M., et al. (författare)
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 741:1, s. 30
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a detailed statistical analysis of the correlation between radio and gamma-ray emission of the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by Fermi during its first year of operation, with the largest data sets ever used for this purpose. We use both archival interferometric 8.4 GHz data (from the Very Large Array and ATCA, for the full sample of 599 sources) and concurrent single-dish 15 GHz measurements from the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO, for a sub sample of 199 objects). Our unprecedentedly large sample permits us to assess with high accuracy the statistical significance of the correlation, using a surrogate data method designed to simultaneously account for common-distance bias and the effect of a limited dynamical range in the observed quantities. We find that the statistical significance of a positive correlation between the centimeter radio and the broadband (E > 100 MeV) gamma-ray energy flux is very high for the whole AGN sample, with a probability of < 10(-7) for the correlation appearing by chance. Using the OVRO data, we find that concurrent data improve the significance of the correlation from 1.6 x 10(-6) to 9.0 x 10(-8). Our large sample size allows us to study the dependence of correlation strength and significance on specific source types and gamma-ray energy band. We find that the correlation is very significant (chance probability < 10(-7)) for both flat spectrum radio quasars and BL Lac objects separately; a dependence of the correlation strength on the considered gamma-ray energy band is also present, but additional data will be necessary to constrain its significance.
  • Hibar, D. P., et al. (författare)
  • Subcortical volumetric abnormalities in bipolar disorder
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 21:12, s. 1710-1716
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Considerable uncertainty exists about the defining brain changes associated with bipolar disorder (BD). Understanding and quantifying the sources of uncertainty can help generate novel clinical hypotheses about etiology and assist in the development of biomarkers for indexing disease progression and prognosis. Here we were interested in quantifying case-control differences in intracranial volume (ICV) and each of eight subcortical brain measures: nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus, lateral ventricles. In a large study of 1710 BD patients and 2594 healthy controls, we found consistent volumetric reductions in BD patients for mean hippocampus (Cohen's d=-0.232; P=3.50 × 10 -7) and thalamus (d=-0.148; P=4.27 × 10 -3) and enlarged lateral ventricles (d=-0.260; P=3.93 × 10 -5) in patients. No significant effect of age at illness onset was detected. Stratifying patients based on clinical subtype (BD type I or type II) revealed that BDI patients had significantly larger lateral ventricles and smaller hippocampus and amygdala than controls. However, when comparing BDI and BDII patients directly, we did not detect any significant differences in brain volume. This likely represents similar etiology between BD subtype classifications. Exploratory analyses revealed significantly larger thalamic volumes in patients taking lithium compared with patients not taking lithium. We detected no significant differences between BDII patients and controls in the largest such comparison to date. Findings in this study should be interpreted with caution and with careful consideration of the limitations inherent to meta-analyzed neuroimaging comparisons. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature.
  • Acciari, V. A., et al. (författare)
  • VERITAS Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts Detected by Swift
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 743:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the results of 16 Swift-triggered Gamma-ray burst (GRB) follow-up observations taken with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) telescope array from 2007 January to 2009 June. The median energy threshold and response time of these observations were 260 GeV and 320 s, respectively. Observations had an average duration of 90 minutes. Each burst is analyzed independently in two modes: over the whole duration of the observations and again over a shorter timescale determined by the maximum VERITAS sensitivity to a burst with a t –1.5 time profile. This temporal model is characteristic of GRB afterglows with high-energy, long-lived emission that have been detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi satellite. No significant very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission was detected and upper limits above the VERITAS threshold energy are calculated. The VERITAS upper limits are corrected for gamma-ray extinction by the extragalactic background light and interpreted in the context of the keV emission detected by Swift. For some bursts the VHE emission must have less power than the keV emission, placing constraints on inverse Compton models of VHE emission.
  • Aliu, E., et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of High-energy and Very High Energy γ-Ray Emission from the Blazar RBS 0413
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 750:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on the discovery of high-energy (HE; E > 0.1 GeV) and very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-ray emission from the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object RBS 0413. VERITAS, a ground-based γ-ray observatory, detected VHE γ rays from RBS 0413 with a statistical significance of 5.5 standard deviations (σ) and a γ-ray flux of (1.5 ± 0.6stat ± 0.7syst) × 10–8 photons m–2 s–1 (~1% of the Crab Nebula flux) above 250 GeV. The observed spectrum can be described by a power law with a photon index of 3.18 ± 0.68stat ± 0.30syst. Contemporaneous observations with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected HE γ rays from RBS 0413 with a statistical significance of more than 9σ, a power-law photon index of 1.57 ± 0.12stat +0.11 – 0.12sys, and a γ-ray flux between 300 MeV and 300 GeV of (1.64 ± 0.43stat +0.31 – 0.22sys) × 10–5photons m–2 s–1. We present the results from Fermi-LAT and VERITAS, including a spectral energy distribution modeling of the γ-ray, quasi-simultaneous X-ray (Swift-XRT), ultraviolet (Swift-UVOT), and R-band optical (MDM) data. We find that, if conditions close to equipartition are required, both the combined synchrotron self-Compton/external-Compton and the lepto-hadronic models are preferred over a pure synchrotron self-Compton model.
  • Aliu, E., et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of TeV Gamma-Ray Emission toward Supernova Remnant SNR G78.2+2.1
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 770:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the discovery of an unidentified, extended source of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission, VER J2019+407, within the radio shell of the supernova remnant SNR G78.2+2.1, using 21.4 hr of data taken by the VERITAS gamma-ray observatory in 2009. These data confirm the preliminary indications of gamma-ray emission previously seen in a two-year (2007-2009) blind survey of the Cygnus region by VERITAS. VER J2019+407, which is detected at a post-trials significance of 7.5 standard deviations in the 2009 data, is localized to the northwestern rim of the remnant in a region of enhanced radio and X-ray emission. It has an intrinsic extent of <img src="http://ej.iop.org/images/0004-637X/770/2/93/apj471190ieqn1.gif" /> and its spectrum is well-characterized by a differential power law (dN/dE = N 0 × (E/TeV)–Γ) with a photon index of Γ = 2.37 ± 0.14stat ± 0.20sys and a flux normalization of N 0 = 1.5 ± 0.2stat ± 0.4sys × 10–12 photon TeV–1 cm–2 s–1. This yields an integral flux of 5.2 ± 0.8stat ± 1.4sys × 10–12 photon cm–2 s–1above 320 GeV, corresponding to 3.7% of the Crab Nebula flux. We consider the relationship of the TeV gamma-ray emission with the GeV gamma-ray emission seen from SNR G78.2+2.1 as well as that seen from a nearby cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays. Multiple scenarios are considered as possible origins for the TeV gamma-ray emission, including hadronic particle acceleration at the SNR shock.
  • Aliu, E., et al. (författare)
  • VERITAS Observations of Day-scale Flaring of M 87 in 2010 April
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 746:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • VERITAS has been monitoring the very-high-energy (VHE; &gt; 100 GeV) gamma-ray activity of the radio galaxy M 87 since 2007. During 2008, flaring activity on a timescale of a few days was observed with a peak flux of (0.70 ± 0.16) × 10–11 cm–2 s–1 at energies above 350 GeV. In 2010 April, VERITAS detected a flare from M 87 with peak flux of (2.71 ± 0.68) × 10–11 cm–2 s–1 forE &gt; 350 GeV. The source was observed for six consecutive nights during the flare, resulting in a total of 21 hr of good-quality data. The most rapid flux variation occurred on the trailing edge of the flare with an exponential flux decay time of 0.90+0.22 –0.15 days. The shortest detected exponential rise time is three times as long, at 2.87+1.65 –0.99 days. The quality of the data sample is such that spectral analysis can be performed for three periods: rising flux, peak flux, and falling flux. The spectra obtained are consistent with power-law forms. The spectral index at the peak of the flare is equal to 2.19 ± 0.07. There is some indication that the spectrum is softer in the falling phase of the flare than the peak phase, with a confidence level corresponding to 3.6 standard deviations. We discuss the implications of these results for the acceleration and cooling rates of VHE electrons in M 87 and the constraints they provide on the physical size of the emitting region.
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