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51.
  • Andresen, G. B., et al. (författare)
  • Autoresonant Excitation of Antiproton Plasmas
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 106:2, s. 025002-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We demonstrate controllable excitation of the center-of-mass longitudinal motion of a thermal antiproton plasma using a swept-frequency autoresonant drive. When the plasma is cold, dense, and highly collective in nature, we observe that the entire system behaves as a single-particle nonlinear oscillator, as predicted by a recent theory. In contrast, only a fraction of the antiprotons in a warm plasma can be similarly excited. Antihydrogen was produced and trapped by using this technique to drive antiprotons into a positron plasma, thereby initiating atomic recombination
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52.
  • Hartley, D. J., et al. (författare)
  • Persistence of collective behavior at high spin in the N=88 nucleus Tb-153
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 91:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Excited states in the N = 88 nucleus Tb-153 were observed up to spin similar to 40 in an experiment utilizing the Gammasphere array. The Tb-153 states were populated in a weak alpha 4n evaporation channel of the Cl-37 + Sn-124 reaction. Two previously known sequences were extended to higher spins, and a new decoupled structure was identified. The pi h(11/2) band was observed in the spin region where other N = 88 isotopes exhibit effects of prolate to oblate shape changes leading to band termination along the yrast line, whereas Tb-153 displays a persistent collective behavior. However, minor perturbations of the very highest state in both signatures of this h(11/2) band are observed, which perhaps signal the start of the transition towards band termination.
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53.
  • Luo, Y. -W, et al. (författare)
  • Database of diazotrophs in global ocean : abundance, biomass and nitrogen fixation rates
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Earth System Science Data. - 1866-3508 .- 1866-3516. ; 4:1, s. 47-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Marine N-2 fixing microorganisms, termed di-azotrophs, are a key functional group in marine pelagic ecosystems. The biological fixation of dinitrogen ( N-2) to bioavailable nitrogen provides an important new source of nitrogen for pelagic marine ecosystems and influences primary productivity and organic matter export to the deep ocean. As one of a series of efforts to collect biomass and rates specific to different phytoplankton functional groups, we have constructed a database on diazotrophic organisms in the global pelagic upper ocean by compiling about 12 000 direct field measurements of cyanobacterial diazotroph abundances (based on microscopic cell counts or qPCR assays targeting the nifH genes) and N-2 fixation rates. Biomass conversion factors are estimated based on cell sizes to convert abundance data to diazotrophic biomass. The database is limited spatially, lacking large regions of the ocean especially in the Indian Ocean. The data are approximately log-normal distributed, and large variances exist in most sub-databases with non-zero values differing 5 to 8 orders of magnitude. Reporting the geometric mean and the range of one geometric standard error below and above the geometric mean, the pelagic N-2 fixation rate in the global ocean is estimated to be 62 (52-73) Tg Nyr(-1) and the pelagic diazotrophic biomass in the global ocean is estimated to be 2.1 (1.4-3.1) Tg C from cell counts and to 89 (43-150) Tg C from nifH- based abundances. Reporting the arithmetic mean and one standard error instead, these three global estimates are 140 +/- 9.2 Tg Nyr(-1), 18 +/- 1.8 Tg C and 590 +/- 70 Tg C, respectively. Uncertainties related to biomass conversion factors can change the estimate of geometric mean pelagic diazotrophic biomass in the global ocean by about +/- 70 %. It was recently established that the most commonly applied method used to measure N-2 fixation has underestimated the true rates. As a result, one can expect that future rate measurements will shift the mean N-2 fixation rate upward and may result in significantly higher estimates for the global N-2 fixation. The evolving database can nevertheless be used to study spatial and temporal distributions and variations of marine N-2 fixation, to validate geochemical estimates and to parameterize and validate biogeochemical models, keeping in mind that future rate measurements may rise in the future.
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54.
  • Al-Khatib, A, et al. (författare)
  • Transition to non-collective states at high spin in Xe-124
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal A. Hadrons and Nuclei. - : Springer. - 1434-6001. ; 36:1, s. 21-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Excited states in Xe-124 were populated in the reaction Se-82(Ca-48, 6n) Xe-124 and gamma-ray coincidence relationships were measured with the Gammasphere spectrometer. Two new bands are observed and several of the previously known bands are extended in the high-as well as in the low-spin region. Two irregular high-spin structures are also added. The irregularities are a fingerprint of a transition from collective to non-collective behaviour. Configuration assignments to the new structures are proposed on the basis of systematics and by comparing experimental properties with calculations within the framework of the cranking model.
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55.
  • Biollaz, S., et al. (författare)
  • Gas analysis in gasification of biomass and waste : Guideline report: Document 1
  • 2018
  • Rapport (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gasification is generally acknowledged as one of the technologies that will enable the large-scale production of biofuels and chemicals from biomass and waste. One of the main technical challenges associated to the deployment of biomass gasification as a commercial technology is the cleaning and upgrading of the product gas. The contaminants of product gas from biomass/waste gasification include dust, tars, alkali metals, BTX, sulphur-, nitrogen- and chlorine compounds, and heavy metals. Proper measurement of the components and contaminants of the product gas is essential for the monitoring of gasification-based plants (efficiency, product quality, by-products), as well as for the proper design of the downstream gas cleaning train (for example, scrubbers, sorbents, etc.). In practice, a trade-off between reliability, accuracy and cost has to be reached when selecting the proper analysis technique for a specific application. The deployment and implementation of inexpensive yet accurate gas analysis techniques to monitor the fate of gas contaminants might play an important role in the commercialization of biomass and waste gasification processes.This special report commissioned by the IEA Bioenergy Task 33 group compiles a representative part of the extensive work developed in the last years by relevant actors in the field of gas analysis applied to(biomass and waste) gasification. The approach of this report has been based on the creation of a team of contributing partners who have supplied material to the report. This networking approach has been complemented with a literature review. The report is composed of a set of 2 documents. Document 1(the present report) describes the available analysis techniques (both commercial and underdevelopment) for the measurement of different compounds of interest present in gasification gas. The objective is to help the reader to properly select the analysis technique most suitable to the target compounds and the intended application. Document 1 also describes some examples of application of gas analysis at commercial-, pilot- and research gasification plants, as well as examples of recent and current joint research activities in the field. The information contained in Document 1 is complemented with a book of factsheets on gas analysis techniques in Document 2, and a collection of video blogs which illustrate some of the analysis techniques described in Documents 1 and 2.This guideline report would like to become a platform for the reinforcement of the network of partners working on the development and application of gas analysis, thus fostering collaboration and exchange of knowledge. As such, this report should become a living document which incorporates in future coming progress and developments in the field.
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56.
  • Biollaz, S., et al. (författare)
  • Gas analysis in gasification of biomass and waste : Guideline report: Document 2 - Factsheets on gas analysis techniques
  • 2018
  • Rapport (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gasification is generally acknowledged as one of the technologies that will enable the large-scale production of biofuels and chemicals from biomass and waste. One of the main technical challenges associated to the deployment of biomass gasification as a commercial technology is the cleaning and upgrading of the product gas. The contaminants of product gas from biomass/waste gasification include dust, tars, alkali metals, BTX, sulphur-, nitrogen- and chlorine compounds, and heavy metals. Proper measurement of the components and contaminants of the product gas is essential for the monitoring of gasification-based plants (efficiency, product quality, by-products), as well as for the proper design of the downstream gas cleaning train (for example, scrubbers, sorbents, etc.). The deployment and implementation of inexpensive yet accurate gas analysis techniques to monitor the fate of gas contaminants might play an important role in the commercialization of biomass and waste gasification processes.This special report commissioned by the IEA Bioenergy Task 33 group compiles a representative part of the extensive work developed in the last years by relevant actors in the field of gas analysis applied to (biomass and waste) gasification. The approach of this report has been based on the creation of a team of contributing partners who have supplied material to the report. This networking approach has been complemented with a literature review. This guideline report would like to become a platform for the reinforcement of the network of partners working on the development and application of gas analysis, thus fostering collaboration and exchange of knowledge. As such, this report should become a living document which incorporates in future coming progress and developments in the field.
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57.
  • Carpenter, S. R., et al. (författare)
  • General resilience to cope with extreme events
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Sustainability. - : MDPI AG. - 2071-1050 .- 2071-1050. ; 4:12, s. 3248-3259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Resilience to specified kinds of disasters is an active area of research and practice. However, rare or unprecedented disturbances that are unusually intense or extensive require a more broad-spectrum type of resilience. General resilience is the capacity of social-ecological systems to adapt or transform in response to unfamiliar, unexpected and extreme shocks. Conditions that enable general resilience include diversity, modularity, openness, reserves, feedbacks, nestedness, monitoring, leadership, and trust. Processes for building general resilience are an emerging and crucially important area of research.
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58.
  • Karlgren, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • High-angular-momentum structures in Zn-64
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C. Nuclear Physics. - 0556-2813 .- 1089-490X. ; 69:3, s. 034330-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High-angular-momentum states in Zn-64 were populated in the Ca-40(Si-28,4p) reaction at a beam energy of 122 MeV. Evaporated, light, charged particles were identified by the Microball, while gamma rays were detected using the Gammasphere array. The main focus of this paper is on two strongly coupled, collective bands. The yrast band, which was previously known, has been linked to lower-lying states establishing the excitation energies and angular momenta of in-band states for the first time. The newly identified excited band decays to the yrast band but firm angular-momentum assignments could not be made. In order to interpret these structures cranked-Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations have been performed. The calculations have been extended to account for the distribution of nucleons within a configuration. The yrast collective band is interpreted as based on the pi(f(7/2))(-1)(p(3/2)f(5/2))(2)(g(9/2))(1)nu(p(3/2)f(5/2))(4)(g(9/2))(2) configuration. There are several possible interpretations of the second band but it is difficult to distinguish between the different possibilities.
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59.
  • Leebens-Mack, James H., et al. (författare)
  • One thousand plant transcriptomes and the phylogenomics of green plants
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 574:7780, s. 679-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Green plants (Viridiplantae) include around 450,000-500,000 species(1,2) of great diversity and have important roles in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Here, as part of the One Thousand Plant Transcriptomes Initiative, we sequenced the vegetative transcriptomes of 1,124 species that span the diversity of plants in a broad sense (Archaeplastida), including green plants (Viridiplantae), glaucophytes (Glaucophyta) and red algae (Rhodophyta). Our analysis provides a robust phylogenomic framework for examining the evolution of green plants. Most inferred species relationships are well supported across multiple species tree and supermatrix analyses, but discordance among plastid and nuclear gene trees at a few important nodes highlights the complexity of plant genome evolution, including polyploidy, periods of rapid speciation, and extinction. Incomplete sorting of ancestral variation, polyploidization and massive expansions of gene families punctuate the evolutionary history of green plants. Notably, we find that large expansions of gene families preceded the origins of green plants, land plants and vascular plants, whereas whole-genome duplications are inferred to have occurred repeatedly throughout the evolution of flowering plants and ferns. The increasing availability of high-quality plant genome sequences and advances in functional genomics are enabling research on genome evolution across the green tree of life.
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60.
  • Nag, Somnath, et al. (författare)
  • Collective and noncollective excitations in Te-122
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 88:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High-spin states in Te-122 were populated in the reaction Se-82(Ca-48, alpha 4n) Te-122 at a beam energy of 200 MeV and gamma-ray coincidences weremeasured with the Gammasphere spectrometer. The previously known level scheme was extended to considerably higher spin. Maximally aligned states and several high-energy transitions feeding into some of these levels were observed. In addition, seven collective high-spin bands were discovered for the first time in this nucleus. The experimental results are compared with cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky model calculations and possible configuration assignments to the new high-spin structures are discussed.
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