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Sökning: WFRF:(Clavel Jacqueline)

  • Resultat 11-18 av 18
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11.
  • Sampson, Joshua N., et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of Heritability and Shared Heritability Based on Genome-Wide Association Studies for 13 Cancer Types
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 107:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Studies of related individuals have consistently demonstrated notable familial aggregation of cancer. We aim to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation attributable to the additive effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cancer at 13 anatomical sites.Methods: Between 2007 and 2014, the US National Cancer Institute has generated data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 49 492 cancer case patients and 34 131 control patients. We apply novel mixed model methodology (GCTA) to this GWAS data to estimate the heritability of individual cancers, as well as the proportion of heritability attributable to cigarette smoking in smoking-related cancers, and the genetic correlation between pairs of cancers.Results: GWAS heritability was statistically significant at nearly all sites, with the estimates of array-based heritability, h(l)(2), on the liability threshold (LT) scale ranging from 0.05 to 0.38. Estimating the combined heritability of multiple smoking characteristics, we calculate that at least 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 37%) and 7% (95% CI = 4% to 11%) of the heritability for lung and bladder cancer, respectively, can be attributed to genetic determinants of smoking. Most pairs of cancers studied did not show evidence of strong genetic correlation. We found only four pairs of cancers with marginally statistically significant correlations, specifically kidney and testes (rho = 0.73, SE = 0.28), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and pediatric osteosarcoma (rho = 0.53, SE = 0.21), DLBCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (rho = 0.51, SE = 0.18), and bladder and lung (rho = 0.35, SE = 0.14). Correlation analysis also indicates that the genetic architecture of lung cancer differs between a smoking population of European ancestry and a nonsmoking Asian population, allowing for the possibility that the genetic etiology for the same disease can vary by population and environmental exposures.Conclusion: Our results provide important insights into the genetic architecture of cancers and suggest new avenues for investigation.
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12.
  • Skibola, Christine F, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide Association Study Identifies Five Susceptibility Loci for Follicular Lymphoma outside the HLA Region.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - : Cell Press. - 0002-9297 .- 1537-6605. ; 95:4, s. 462-471
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of follicular lymphoma (FL) have previously identified human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene variants. To identify additional FL susceptibility loci, we conducted a large-scale two-stage GWAS in 4,523 case subjects and 13,344 control subjects of European ancestry. Five non-HLA loci were associated with FL risk: 11q23.3 (rs4938573, p = 5.79 × 10(-20)) near CXCR5; 11q24.3 (rs4937362, p = 6.76 × 10(-11)) near ETS1; 3q28 (rs6444305, p = 1.10 × 10(-10)) in LPP; 18q21.33 (rs17749561, p = 8.28 × 10(-10)) near BCL2; and 8q24.21 (rs13254990, p = 1.06 × 10(-8)) near PVT1. In an analysis of the HLA region, we identified four linked HLA-DRβ1 multiallelic amino acids at positions 11, 13, 28, and 30 that were associated with FL risk (pomnibus = 4.20 × 10(-67) to 2.67 × 10(-70)). Additional independent signals included rs17203612 in HLA class II (odds ratio [ORper-allele] = 1.44; p = 4.59 × 10(-16)) and rs3130437 in HLA class I (ORper-allele = 1.23; p = 8.23 × 10(-9)). Our findings further expand the number of loci associated with FL and provide evidence that multiple common variants outside the HLA region make a significant contribution to FL risk.
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13.
  • Vijai, Joseph, et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide association study of marginal zone lymphoma shows association to the HLA region
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is the third most common subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Here we perform a two-stage GWAS of 1,281 MZL cases and 7,127 controls of European ancestry and identify two independent loci near BTNL2 (rs9461741, P - 3.95 x 10(-15)) and HLA-B (rs2922994, P - 2.43 x 10(-9)) in the HLA region significantly associated with MZL risk. This is the first evidence that genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex influences MZL susceptibility.
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14.
  • Wang, Sophia S., et al. (författare)
  • HLA Class I and II Diversity Contributes to the Etiologic Heterogeneity of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ; 78:14, s. 4086-4096
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A growing number of loci within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region have been implicated in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) etiology. Here, we test a complementary hypothesis of "heterozygote advantage" regarding the role of HLA and NHL, whereby HLA diversity is beneficial and homozygous HLA loci are associated with increased disease risk. HLA alleles at class I and II loci were imputed from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using SNP2HLA for 3,617 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL), 2,686 follicular lymphomas (FL), 2,878 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphomas (CLL/SLL), 741 marginal zone lymphomas (MZL), and 8,753 controls of European descent. Both DLBCL and MZL risk were elevated with homozygosity at class I HLA-B and -C loci (OR DLBCL = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.06-1.60; OR MZL = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.12-1.89) and class II HLA-DRB1 locus (OR DLBCL = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.24-3.55; OR MZL = 2.10, 95% CI = 0.99-4.45). Increased FL risk was observed with the overall increase in number of homozygous HLA class II loci (P trend < 0.0001, FDR = 0.0005). These results support a role for HLA zygosity in NHL etiology and suggests that distinct immune pathways may underly the etiology of the different NHL subtypes. Significance: HLA gene diversity reduces risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
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15.
  • Bonaventure, Audrey, et al. (författare)
  • Worldwide comparison of survival from childhood leukaemia for 1995-2009, by subtype, age, and sex (CONCORD-2) : a population-based study of individual data for 89 828 children from 198 registries in 53 countries
  • Ingår i: Lancet Haematology. - : Elsevier. - 2352-3026. ; 4:5, s. 202-217
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Global inequalities in access to health care are reflected in differences in cancer survival. The CONCORD programme was designed to assess worldwide differences and trends in population-based cancer survival. In this population-based study, we aimed to estimate survival inequalities globally for several subtypes of childhood leukaemia.METHODS: Cancer registries participating in CONCORD were asked to submit tumour registrations for all children aged 0-14 years who were diagnosed with leukaemia between Jan 1, 1995, and Dec 31, 2009, and followed up until Dec 31, 2009. Haematological malignancies were defined by morphology codes in the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, third revision. We excluded data from registries from which the data were judged to be less reliable, or included only lymphomas, and data from countries in which data for fewer than ten children were available for analysis. We also excluded records because of a missing date of birth, diagnosis, or last known vital status. We estimated 5-year net survival (ie, the probability of surviving at least 5 years after diagnosis, after controlling for deaths from other causes [background mortality]) for children by calendar period of diagnosis (1995-99, 2000-04, and 2005-09), sex, and age at diagnosis (<1, 1-4, 5-9, and 10-14 years, inclusive) using appropriate life tables. We estimated age-standardised net survival for international comparison of survival trends for precursor-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML).FINDINGS: We analysed data from 89 828 children from 198 registries in 53 countries. During 1995-99, 5-year age-standardised net survival for all lymphoid leukaemias combined ranged from 10·6% (95% CI 3·1-18·2) in the Chinese registries to 86·8% (81·6-92·0) in Austria. International differences in 5-year survival for childhood leukaemia were still large as recently as 2005-09, when age-standardised survival for lymphoid leukaemias ranged from 52·4% (95% CI 42·8-61·9) in Cali, Colombia, to 91·6% (89·5-93·6) in the German registries, and for AML ranged from 33·3% (18·9-47·7) in Bulgaria to 78·2% (72·0-84·3) in German registries. Survival from precursor-cell ALL was very close to that of all lymphoid leukaemias combined, with similar variation. In most countries, survival from AML improved more than survival from ALL between 2000-04 and 2005-09. Survival for each type of leukaemia varied markedly with age: survival was highest for children aged 1-4 and 5-9 years, and lowest for infants (younger than 1 year). There was no systematic difference in survival between boys and girls.INTERPRETATION: Global inequalities in survival from childhood leukaemia have narrowed with time but remain very wide for both ALL and AML. These results provide useful information for health policy makers on the effectiveness of health-care systems and for cancer policy makers to reduce inequalities in childhood cancer survival.FUNDING: Canadian Partnership Against Cancer, Cancer Focus Northern Ireland, Cancer Institute New South Wales, Cancer Research UK, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Swiss Re, Swiss Cancer Research foundation, Swiss Cancer League, and the University of Kentucky.
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16.
  • Marcotte, Erin L., et al. (författare)
  • Caesarean delivery and risk of childhood leukaemia : a pooled analysis from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ; 3:4, s. E176-E185
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Results from case-control studies have shown an increased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in young children born by caesarean delivery, and prelabour caesarean delivery in particular; however, an association of method of delivery with childhood leukaemia subtypes has yet to be established. We therefore did a pooled analysis of data to investigate the association between childhood leukaemia and caesarean delivery. Methods We pooled data from 13 case-control studies from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium done in nine countries (Canada, Costa Rica, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, New Zealand, and the USA) for births from 1970-2013. We analysed caesarean delivery overall and by indications that probably resulted in prelabour caesarean delivery or emergency caesarean delivery. We used multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for child's birthweight, sex, age, ethnic origin, parental education, maternal age, and study, to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for the risk of ALL and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in children aged 0-14 years at diagnosis. Findings The studies provided data for 8780 ALL cases, 1332 AML cases, and 23 459 controls, of which the birth delivery method was known for 8655 (99%) ALL cases, 1292 (97%) AML cases, and 23 351 (> 99%) controls. Indications for caesarean delivery were available in four studies (there were caesarean deliveries for 1061 of 4313 ALL cases, 138 of 664 AML cases, and 1401 of 5884 controls). The OR for all indications of caesarean delivery and ALL was 1.06 (95% CI 0.99-1.13), and was significant for prelabour caesarean delivery and ALL (1.23 [1.04-1.47]; p= 0.018). Emergency caesarean delivery was not associated with ALL (OR 1.02 [95% CI 0.81-1.30]). AML was not associated with caesarean delivery (all indications OR 0.99 [95% CI 0.84-1.17]; prelabour caesarean delivery 0.83 [0.54-1.26]; and emergency caesarean delivery 1.05 [0.63-1.77]). Interpretation Our results suggest an increased risk of childhood ALL after prelabour caesarean delivery. If this association is causal, maladaptive immune activation due to an absence of stress response before birth in children born by prelabour caesarean delivery could be considered as a potential mechanism.
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17.
  • Scott, Robert A., et al. (författare)
  • Common Genetic Variants Highlight the Role of Insulin Resistance and Body Fat Distribution in Type 2 Diabetes, Independent of Obesity
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 63:12, s. 4378-4387
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We aimed to validate genetic variants as instruments for insulin resistance and secretion, to characterize their association with intermediate phenotypes, and to investigate their role in type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk among normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals. We investigated the association of genetic scores with euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp- and oral glucose tolerance test-based measures of insulin resistance and secretion and a range of metabolic measures in up to 18,565 individuals. We also studied their association with T2D risk among normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals in up to 8,124 incident T2D cases. The insulin resistance score was associated with lower insulin sensitivity measured by M/I value (beta in SDs per allele [95% CI], -0.03 [-0.04, -0.01]; P = 0.004). This score was associated with lower BMI (-0.01 [-0.01, -0.0]; P = 0.02) and gluteofemoral fat mass (-0.03 [-0.05,-0.02; P = 1.4x10(-6) and with higher alanine transaminase (0.02 [0.01, 0.03]; P = 0.002) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (0.02 [0.01, 0.03]; P = 0.001). While the secretion score had a stronger association with T2D in leaner individuals (P-interaction = 0.001), we saw no difference in the association of the insulin resistance score with T2D among BMI or waist strata (P-interaction > 0.31). While insulin resistance is often considered secondary to obesity, the association of the insulin resistance score with lower BMI and adiposity and with incident T2D even among individuals of normal weight highlights the role of insulin resistance and ectopic fat distribution in T2D, independently of body size.
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18.
  • Scott, Robert A, et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic variants highlight the role of insulin resistance and body fat distribution in type 2 diabetes, independently of obesity.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X .- 0012-1797. ; 63:12, s. 4378-4387
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We aimed to validate genetic variants as instruments for insulin resistance and secretion, to characterise their association with intermediate phenotypes, and to investigate their role in T2D risk among normal-weight, overweight and obese individuals.We investigated the association of genetic scores with euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp- and OGTT-based measures of insulin resistance and secretion, and a range of metabolic measures in up to 18,565 individuals. We also studied their association with T2D risk among normal-weight, overweight and obese individuals in up to 8,124 incident T2D cases. The insulin resistance score was associated with lower insulin sensitivity measured by M/I value (β in SDs-per-allele [95%CI]:-0.03[-0.04,-0.01];p=0.004). This score was associated with lower BMI (-0.01[-0.01,-0.0;p=0.02) and gluteofemoral fat-mass : -0.03[-0.05,-0.02;p=1.4x10(-6)), and with higher ALT (0.02[0.01,0.03];p=0.002) and gamma-GT (0.02[0.01,0.03];p=0.001). While the secretion score had a stronger association with T2D in leaner individuals (pinteraction=0.001), we saw no difference in the association of the insulin resistance score with T2D among BMI- or waist-strata(pinteraction>0.31). While insulin resistance is often considered secondary to obesity, the association of the insulin resistance score with lower BMI and adiposity and with incident T2D even among individuals of normal weight highlights the role of insulin resistance and ectopic fat distribution in T2D, independently of body size.
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