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41.
  • Abdallah, J.,..., et al. (författare)
  • Study of b-quark mass effects in multijet topologies with the DELPHI detector at LEP
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 55:4, s. 525-538
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effect of the heavy b-quarkmass on the two, three and four-jet rates is studied using LEP data collected by the DELPHI experiment at the Z peak in 1994 and 1995. The rates of b-quark jets and light quark jets (l = uds) in events with n = 2, 3, and 4 jets, together with the ratio of two and four-jet rates of b-quarks with respect to light-quarks, R-n(bl), have been measured with a double-tag technique using the CAMBRIDGE jet-clustering algorithm. A comparison between experimental results and theory (matrix element or Monte Carlo event generators such as PYTHIA, HERWIG andARIADNE) is done after the hadronisation phase. Using the four-jet observabl R-4(bl), a measurement of the b-quark mass using massive leading-order calculations gives: m(b)(M-Z) = 3.76 +/- 0.32 (stat) +/- 0.17 (syst) +/- 0.22 (had) +/- 0.90 (theo) GeV/c(2). This result is compatible with previous three-jet determinations at the M-Z energy scale and with low energy mass measurements evolved to the M-Z scale using QCD renormalisation group equations.
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42.
  • Abdallah, J., et al. (författare)
  • Study of leading hadrons in gluon and quark fragmentation
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 643:3-4, s. 147-157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The study of quark jets in e(+)e(-) reactions at LEP has demonstrated that the hadronisation process is reproduced well by the Lund string model. However. our understanding of gluon fragmentation is less complete. In this study enriched quark and gluon jet samples of different purities are selected in three-jet events from hadronic decays of the Z collected by the DELPHI experiment in the LEP runs during 1994 and 1995. The leading systems of the two kinds of jets are defined by requiring a rapidity gap and their sum of charges is studied. An excess of leading systems with total charge zero is found for gluon jets in all cases, when compared to Monte Carlo simulations with JETSET (with and without Bose-Einstein correlations included) and ARIADNE. The corresponding leading systems of quark jets do not exhibit such an excess. The influence of the gap size and of the gluon purity on the effect is studied and a concentration of the excess of neutral leading systems at low invariant masses (less than or similar to 2 GeV/c(2)) is observed, indicating that gluon jets might have an additional hitherto undetected fragmentation mode via a two-gluon system. This could be an indication of a possible production of gluonic states as predicted by QCD. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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43.
  • Abdallah, J., et al. (författare)
  • Study of W-boson polarisations and triple gauge boson couplings in the reaction e(+)e(-)-> W+W- at LEP 2
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 54:3, s. 345-364
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A determination of the single W spin density matrix (SDM) elements in the reaction e(+)e(-) -> W+W--> l nu q (q) over bar (l=e/mu) is reported at centre-of-mass energies between 189 and 209GeV. The data sample used corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 520pb(-1) taken by DELPHI between 1998 and 2000. The single W SDM elements, rho(W +/-)(tau tau') (tau,tau'=+/- 1 or 0), are determined as a function of the W- production angle with respect to the e(-) beam direction and are obtained from measurements of the W decay products by the application of suitable projection operators, Lambda(tau tau'), which assume the V-A coupling of the W-boson to fermions. The measured SDM elements are used to obtain the fraction of longitudinally polarised Ws, with the result: sigma(L)/sigma(tot) = 24.9 +/- 4.5 (stat) +/- 2.2 (syst)% at a mean energy of 198 GeV. The SDM elements are also used to determine the triple gauge couplings Delta g(1)(Z), Delta kappa(gamma), lambda(gamma) and g(4)(Z), (kappa) over tilde (Z) and (lambda) over tilde (Z). For the CP-violating couplings the results of single parameter fits are: g(4)(Z) = -0.39(-0.20)(+0.19) (kappa) over tilde (Z) = -0.09(-0.05)(+0.08) (lambda) over tilde (Z) = -0.08 +/- 0.07. The errors are a combination of statistical and systematic errors. All results are consistent with the Standard Model.
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44.
  • Abreu, P, et al. (författare)
  • b-tagging in DELPHI at LEP
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 32:2, s. 185-208
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The standard method used for tagging b-hadrons in the DELPHI experiment at the CERN LEP Collider is discussed in detail. The main ingredient of b-tagging is the impact parameters of tracks, which relies mostly on the vertex detector. Additional information, such as the mass of particles associated to a secondary vertex, significantly improves the selection efficiency and the background suppression. The paper describes various discriminating variables used for the tagging and the procedure of their combination. In addition, applications of b-tagging to some physics analyses, which depend crucially on the performance and reliability of b-tagging, are described briefly.
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45.
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46.
  • Joffrin, E., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of the JET preparation for deuterium-tritium operation with the ITER like-wall
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515. ; 59:11
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For the past several years, the JET scientific programme (Pamela et al 2007 Fusion Eng. Des. 82 590) has been engaged in a multi-campaign effort, including experiments in D, H and T, leading up to 2020 and the first experiments with 50%/50% D-T mixtures since 1997 and the first ever D-T plasmas with the ITER mix of plasma-facing component materials. For this purpose, a concerted physics and technology programme was launched with a view to prepare the D-T campaign (DTE2). This paper addresses the key elements developed by the JET programme directly contributing to the D-T preparation. This intense preparation includes the review of the physics basis for the D-T operational scenarios, including the fusion power predictions through first principle and integrated modelling, and the impact of isotopes in the operation and physics of D-T plasmas (thermal and particle transport, high confinement mode (H-mode) access, Be and W erosion, fuel recovery, etc). This effort also requires improving several aspects of plasma operation for DTE2, such as real time control schemes, heat load control, disruption avoidance and a mitigation system (including the installation of a new shattered pellet injector), novel ion cyclotron resonance heating schemes (such as the three-ions scheme), new diagnostics (neutron camera and spectrometer, active Alfven eigenmode antennas, neutral gauges, radiation hard imaging systems...) and the calibration of the JET neutron diagnostics at 14 MeV for accurate fusion power measurement. The active preparation of JET for the 2020 D-T campaign provides an incomparable source of information and a basis for the future D-T operation of ITER, and it is also foreseen that a large number of key physics issues will be addressed in support of burning plasmas.
47.
  • Lituadon, Xavier, et al. (författare)
  • Overview of the JET results in support to ITER
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 57:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The 2014-2016 JET results are reviewed in the light of their significance for optimising the ITER research plan for the active and non-active operation. More than 60 h of plasma operation with ITER first wall materials successfully took place since its installation in 2011. New multi-machine scaling of the type I-ELM divertor energy flux density to ITER is supported by first principle modelling. ITER relevant disruption experiments and first principle modelling are reported with a set of three disruption mitigation valves mimicking the ITER setup. Insights of the L-H power threshold in Deuterium and Hydrogen are given, stressing the importance of the magnetic configurations and the recent measurements of fine-scale structures in the edge radial electric. Dimensionless scans of the core and pedestal confinement provide new information to elucidate the importance of the first wall material on the fusion performance. H-mode plasmas at ITER triangularity (H = 1 at beta(N) similar to 1.8 and n/n(GW) similar to 0.6) have been sustained at 2 MA during 5 s. The ITER neutronics codes have been validated on high performance experiments. Prospects for the coming D-T campaign and 14 MeV neutron calibration strategy are reviewed.
48.
  • Abdallah et al., DELPHI Collaboration: J, et al. (författare)
  • Determination of heavy quark non-perturbative parametersfrom spectral moments in semileptonic B decays
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 45:1, s. 35-59
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Moments of the hadronic invariant mass and of the lepton energy spectra in semileptonic B decays have been determined with the data recorded by the DELPHI detector at LEP. From measurements of the inclusive b-hadron semileptonic decays, and imposing constraints from other measurements on b- and c-quark masses, the first three moments of the lepton energy distribution and of the hadronic mass distribution, have been used to determine parameters which enter into the extraction of vertical bar V-cb vertical bar from the measurement of the inclusive b-hadron semileptonic decay width. The values obtained in the kinetic scheme are: m(b)(1 GeV) = 4.591 +/- 0.062 +/- 0.039 +/- 0.005 GeV/c(2), m(c)(1 GeV) = 1.170 +/- 0.093 +/- 0.055 +/- 0.005 GeV/c(2), m(pi)(2) (1 GeV) = 0.399 +/- 0.048 +/- 0.034 +/- 0.087 GeV2, (p) over tilde (3)(D) = 0.053 +/- 0.017 +/- 0.011 +/- 0.026 GeV3, and include corrections at order 1/m(b)(3). Using these results, and present measurements of the inclusive semileptonic decay partial width of b-hadrons at LEP, an accurate determination of vertical bar V-cb vertical bar is obtained: vertical bar V-cb vertical bar = 0.0421 x (1 +/- 0.014 (meas center dot) +/- 0.014 (fit) +/- 0.015 (th center dot)).
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49.
  • Abdallah, J, et al. (författare)
  • A study of the energy evolution of event shape distributions and their means with the DELPHI detector at LEP
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 29:3, s. 285-312
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Infrared and collinear safe event shape distributions and their mean values are determined in e(+)e(-) collisions at centre-of-mass energies between 45 and 202GeV. A phenomenological analysis based on power correction models including hadron mass effects for both differential distributions and mean values is presented. Using power corrections, alpha(s) is extracted from the mean values and shapes. In an alternative approach, renormalisation group invariance (RGI) is used as an explicit constraint, leading to a consistent description of mean values without the need for sizeable power corrections. The QCD beta-function is precisely measured using this approach. From the DELPHI data on Thrust, including data from low energy experiments, one finds beta(0) = 7.86 +/- 0.32 for the one loop coefficient of the beta-function or, assuming QCD, n(f) = 4.75 +/- 0.44 for the number of active flavours. These values agree well with the QCD expectation of beta(0) = 7.67 and n(f) 5. A direct measurement of the full logarithmic energy slope excludes light gluinos with a mass below 5GeV.
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50.
  • Abdallah, J, et al. (författare)
  • Determination of A(FB)(b) at the Z pole using inclusive charge reconstruction and lifetime tagging
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 40:1, s. 1-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A novel high precision method measures the b-quark forward-backward asymmetry at the Z pole on a sample of 3,560,890 hadronic events collected with the DELPHI detector in 1992 to 2000. An enhanced impact parameter tag provides a high purity b sample. For event hemispheres with a reconstructed secondary vertex the charge of the corresponding quark or anti-quark is determined using a neural network which combines in an optimal way the full available charge information from the vertex charge, the jet charge and from identified leptons and hadrons. The probability of correctly identifying b-quarks and anti-quarks is measured on the data themselves comparing the rates of double hemisphere tagged like-sign and unlike-sign events. The b-quark forward-backward asymmetry is determined from the differential asymmetry, taking small corrections due to hemisphere correlations and background contributions into account. The results for different centre-of-mass energies are: A(FB)(b) ( 89.449 GeV) = 0.0637 +/- 0.0143( stat.) +/- 0.0017( syst.), A(FB)(b) ( 91.231 GeV) = 0.0958 +/- 0.0032( stat.) +/- 0.0014( syst.), A(FB)(b) ( 92.990 GeV) = 0.1041 +/- 0.0115( stat.) +/- 0.0024( syst.). Combining these results yields the b-quark pole asymmetry A(FB)(b0) = 0.0972 +/- 0.0030( stat.) +/- 0.0014( syst.).
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