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591.
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592.
593.
  • van Niel, Ed, et al. (författare)
  • The role of polyglucose in oxygen-dependent respiration by a new strain of Desulfovibrio salexigens
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: FEMS microbiology ecology. - Elsevier. - 0168-6496. ; 21, s. 243-253
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Desulfovibrio salexigens strain Mastl was isolated from the oxic/anoxic interface of a marine sediment. Growth under sulfate-reducing conditions was accompanied by polyglucose accumulation in the cell with every substrate tested. Highest polyglucose storage was found with glucose (0.8–1.0 g polyglucose (g protein)−1), but the growth rate with this substrate was very low (0.015 h−1). Anaerobically grown cells of strain Mastl exhibited immediate oxygen-dependent respiration. The endogenous oxygen reduction rate was proportional to the polyglucose content. The rate of aerobic respiration of pyruvate was also directly related to the polyglucose content indicating that this organism was only able to respire with oxygen as long as polyglucose was present. Maximum oxygen reduction rates were found at air saturating concentrations and were relatively low (3–50 nmol O2 min−1 (mg protein)−1). Catalase was constitutively present in anaerobically grown cells. When batch cultures were exposed to oxygen, growth ceased immediately and polyglucose was oxidized to acetate within 40–50 h. Like the oxygen reduction activity, the nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT)-reduction activity in these cells was proportional to the polyglucose content. Under anaerobic starvation conditions there was no correlation between the NBT-reduction activity and polyglucose concentration and polyglucose was degraded slowly within 240 h. The ecological significance of aerobic polyglucose consumption is discussed.
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594.
  • van Swaay, Chris A.M., et al. (författare)
  • The European Butterfly Indicator for Grassland species: 1990-2015
  • 2016
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This report presents the sixth version of the European Grassland Butterfly Indicator, one of the EU biodiversity indicators of the European Environment Agency.The indicator is based on more than 9200 transects in national Butterfly Monitoring Schemes covering 22 countries across Europe, most of them active in the European Union. In 2015, counts were made in more than 4500 transects.Butterflies represent the largest animal group (insects), highly included in food webs, having a high impact on ecosystem services and stability. This report does not represent only the patrimonial conservation of some species, but indicates the changes in biodiversity on grasslands and discusses underlying causes.Fluctuations in numbers between years are typical features of butterfly populations. The assessment of change istherefore made on an analysis of the underlying trend.Indicators were produced on EU, European (EU plus Norway and Switzerland) and pan-European level (including Ukraine, Russia and Armenia).The underlying analysis of the indicator shows that since 1990, grassland butterfly abundance has declined by 30%.The rate of loss has slowed in the last 5-10 years. Part of this slowing down might be caused by climate warming, as this favours cold-blooded animals like butterflies, thus masking the effects of intensification. In parts of Western Europe butterfly numbers outside nature reserves have come to an absolute minimum, meaning it is unlikely for the indicator to further drop.The priority now is to halt further losses and support recovery. This can only come about with greater protection and more sustainable management of semi-natural grassland.
595.
  • Waelbroeck, Claire, et al. (författare)
  • Consistently dated Atlantic sediment cores over the last 40 thousand years
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Data. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2052-4463. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rapid changes in ocean circulation and climate have been observed in marine-sediment and ice cores over the last glacial period and deglaciation, highlighting the non-linear character of the climate system and underlining the possibility of rapid climate shifts in response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. To date, these rapid changes in climate and ocean circulation are still not fully explained. One obstacle hindering progress in our understanding of the interactions between past ocean circulation and climate changes is the difficulty of accurately dating marine cores. Here, we present a set of 92 marine sediment cores from the Atlantic Ocean for which we have established age-depth models that are consistent with the Greenland GICC05 ice core chronology, and computed the associated dating uncertainties, using a new deposition modeling technique. This is the first set of consistently dated marine sediment cores enabling paleoclimate scientists to evaluate leads/lags between circulation and climate changes over vast regions of the Atlantic Ocean. Moreover, this data set is of direct use in paleoclimate modeling studies.
596.
  •  
597.
  • Wormser, David, et al. (författare)
  • Separate and combined associations of body-mass index and abdominal adiposity with cardiovascular disease: collaborative analysis of 58 prospective studies.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Lancet. - 1474-547X. ; 377:9771, s. 1085-95
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Guidelines differ about the value of assessment of adiposity measures for cardiovascular disease risk prediction when information is available for other risk factors. We studied the separate and combined associations of body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio with risk of first-onset cardiovascular disease.METHODS:We used individual records from 58 cohorts to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) per 1 SD higher baseline values (4.56 kg/m(2) higher BMI, 12.6 cm higher waist circumference, and 0.083 higher waist-to-hip ratio) and measures of risk discrimination and reclassification. Serial adiposity assessments were used to calculate regression dilution ratios.RESULTS:Individual records were available for 221,934 people in 17 countries (14,297 incident cardiovascular disease outcomes; 1.87 million person-years at risk). Serial adiposity assessments were made in up to 63,821 people (mean interval 5.7 years [SD 3.9]). In people with BMI of 20 kg/m(2) or higher, HRs for cardiovascular disease were 1.23 (95% CI 1.17-1.29) with BMI, 1.27 (1.20-1.33) with waist circumference, and 1.25 (1.19-1.31) with waist-to-hip ratio, after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking status. After further adjustment for baseline systolic blood pressure, history of diabetes, and total and HDL cholesterol, corresponding HRs were 1.07 (1.03-1.11) with BMI, 1.10 (1.05-1.14) with waist circumference, and 1.12 (1.08-1.15) with waist-to-hip ratio. Addition of information on BMI, waist circumference, or waist-to-hip ratio to a cardiovascular disease risk prediction model containing conventional risk factors did not importantly improve risk discrimination (C-index changes of -0.0001, -0.0001, and 0.0008, respectively), nor classification of participants to categories of predicted 10-year risk (net reclassification improvement -0.19%, -0.05%, and -0.05%, respectively). Findings were similar when adiposity measures were considered in combination. Reproducibility was greater for BMI (regression dilution ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.93-0.97) than for waist circumference (0.86, 0.83-0.89) or waist-to-hip ratio (0.63, 0.57-0.70).INTERPRETATION:BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio, whether assessed singly or in combination, do not importantly improve cardiovascular disease risk prediction in people in developed countries when additional information is available for systolic blood pressure, history of diabetes, and lipids.FUNDING:British Heart Foundation and UK Medical Research Council.
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