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  • Bruzzi, M, et al. (författare)
  • Radiation-hard semiconductor detectors for SuperLHC
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment. - Elsevier. - 0167-5087. ; 541:1-2, s. 189-201
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An option of increasing the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN to 1035 cm-2 s-1 has been envisaged to extend the physics reach of the machine. An efficient tracking down to a few centimetres from the interaction point will be required to exploit the physics potential of the upgraded LHC. As a consequence, the semiconductor detectors close to the interaction region will receive severe doses of fast hadron irradiation and the inner tracker detectors will need to survive fast hadron fluences of up to above 1016cm-2. The CERN-RD50 project "Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders" has been established in 2002 to explore detector materials and technologies that will allow to operate devices up to, or beyond, this limit. The strategies followed by RD50 to enhance the radiation tolerance include the development of new or defect engineered detector materials (SiC, GaN, Czochralski and epitaxial silicon, oxygen enriched Float Zone silicon), the improvement of present detector designs and the understanding of the microscopic defects causing the degradation of the irradiated detectors. The latest advancements within the RD50 collaboration on radiation hard semiconductor detectors will be reviewed and discussed in this work.
  • Abdallah, J., et al. (författare)
  • A study of b(b)over-bar production in e(+)e(-) collisions at root s=130-207 GeV
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 60:1, s. 1-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Measurements are presented of R-b, the ratio of the b (b) over bar cross-section to the q (q) over bar cross-section in e(+)e(-) collisions, and the forward-backward asymmetry A(FB)(b) at twelve energy points in the range root s = 130-207 GeV. These results are found to be consistent with the Standard Model expectations. The measurements are used to set limits on new physics scenarios involving contact interactions.
  • Abdallah, J, et al. (författare)
  • Correlations between polarisation states of W particles in the reaction e(-)e(+)-> W-W+ at LEP2 energies 189-209 GeV
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 63:4, s. 611-623
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a study of the reaction e(-)e(+)-> W-W+ with the DELPHI detector, the probabilities of the two W particles occurring in the joint polarisation states transverse-transverse (T T), longitudinal-transverse plus transverse-longitudinal (LT) and longitudinal-longitudinal (LL) have been determined using the final states WW -> lvq (q) over bar (l = e, mu). The two-particle joint polarisation probabilities, i.e. the spin density matrix elements rho T T, rho LT, rho LL, are measured as functions of the W- production angle, theta(W-), at an average reaction energy of 198.2 GeV. Averaged over all cos.W-, the following joint probabilities are obtained: (rho) over barT T = (67 +/- 8)%, (rho) over barL T = (30 +/- 8)%, (rho) over barL T = (3 +/- 7)%. These results are in agreement with the Standard Model predictions of 63.0%, 28.9% and 8.1%, respectively. The related polarisation cross-sections sigma(TT), sigma(LT) and sigma(LL) are also presented.
  • Abdallah, J, et al. (författare)
  • Inclusive single-particle production in two-photon collisions at LEP II with the DELPHI detector
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 678:5, s. 444-449
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A study of the inclusive charged hadron production in two-photon collisions is described. The data were collected with the DELPHI detector at LEP II. Results on the inclusive single-particle PT distribution and the differential charged hadrons d sigma/dp(T) cross-section are presented and compared to the predictions of perturbative NLO QCD calculations and to published results. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Abdallah, J., et al. (författare)
  • Search for one large extra dimension with the DELPHI detector at LEP
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 60:1, s. 17-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Single photons detected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP2 in the years 1997-2000 are reanalysed to investigate the existence of a single extra dimension in a modified ADD scenario with slightly warped large extra dimensions. The data collected at centre-of-mass energies between 180 and 209 GeV for an integrated luminosity of similar to 650 pb(-1) agree with the predictions of the Standard Model and allow a limit to be set on graviton emission in one large extra dimension. The limit obtained on the fundamental mass scale M-D is 1.69 TeV/c(2) at 95% CL, with an expected limit of 1.71 TeV/c(2).
  • Abdallah, J., et al. (författare)
  • Single intermediate vector boson production in e(+)e(-) collisions at root s=183-209 GeV
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 45:2, s. 273-289
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The production of single charged and neutral intermediate vector bosons in e(+)e(-) collisions has been studied in the data collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP at centre-of-mass energies between 183 and 209 GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 640 pb(-1). The measured cross-sections for the reactions, determined in limited kinematic regions, are in agreement with the Standard Model predictions.
  • Abdallah, J., et al. (författare)
  • Z gamma* production in e(+) e(-) interactions at root s=183-209 GeV
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 51:3, s. 503-523
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Measurements of Z gamma* production are presented using data collected by the DELPHI detector at centre-of-mass energies ranging from 183 to 209 GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 667 pb(-1). The measurements cover a wide range of the possible final state four-fermion configurations: hadronic and leptonic (e(+) e(-) q (q) over bar, mu(+) mu(-) q (q) over bar ,q (q) over barv (v) over bar), fully leptonic (l(+) l(-) l' (+) l'(-)) and fully hadronic. nal states (q (q) over barq (q) over bar, with a low mass q (q$) over bar pair). Measurements of the Z gamma* cross-section for the various. nal states have been compared with the Standard Model expectations and found to be consistent within the errors. In addition, a total cross-section measurement of the l(+) l(-) l'(+)l'(-) cross-section is reported, and found to be in agreement with the prediction of the Standard Model.
  • Abdallah, J, et al. (författare)
  • Search for eta(b) in two-photon collisions at LEP II with the DELPHI detector
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 634:4, s. 340-346
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The pseudoscalar meson eta(b) has been searched for in two-photon interactions at LEP II. The data sample corresponds to a total integrated luminosity of 617 pb(-1) at centre-of-mass energies ranging from 161 to 209 GeV. Upper limits at a confidence level of 95% on the product Gamma(gamma gamma) (eta(b)) x BR(eta(b)) are 190, 470 and 660 eV/c(2) for the eta(b) decaying into 4, 6 and 8 charged particles, respectively.
  • Abe, O, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for early breast cancer on recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - Elsevier. - 1474-547X. ; 365:9472, s. 1687-1717
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Quinquennial overviews (1985-2000) of the randomised trials in early breast cancer have assessed the 5-year and 10-year effects of various systemic adjuvant therapies on breast cancer recurrence and survival. Here, we report the 10-year and 15-year effects. Methods Collaborative meta-analyses were undertaken of 194 unconfounded randomised trials of adjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy that began by 1995. Many trials involved CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, fluorouracil), anthracycline-based combinations such as FAC (fluorouracil, doxombicin, cyclophosphamide) or FEC (fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide), tamoxifen, or ovarian suppression: none involved taxanes, trastuzumab, raloxifene, or modem aromatase inhibitors. Findings Allocation to about 6 months of anthracycline-based polychemotherapy (eg, with FAC or FEC) reduces the annual breast cancer death rate by about 38% (SE 5) for women younger than 50 years of age when diagnosed and by about 20% (SE 4) for those of age 50-69 years when diagnosed, largely irrespective of the use of tamoxifen and of oestrogen receptor (ER) status, nodal status, or other tumour characteristics. Such regimens are significantly (2p=0 . 0001 for recurrence, 2p<0 . 00001 for breast cancer mortality) more effective than CMF chemotherapy. Few women of age 70 years or older entered these chemotherapy trials. For ER-positive disease only, allocation to about 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen reduces the annual breast cancer death rate by 31% (SE 3), largely irrespective of the use of chemotherapy and of age (<50, 50-69, &GE; 70 years), progesterone receptor status, or other tumour characteristics. 5 years is significantly (2p<0 . 00001 for recurrence, 2p=0 . 01 for breast cancer mortality) more effective than just 1-2 years of tamoxifen. For ER-positive tumours, the annual breast cancer mortality rates are similar during years 0-4 and 5-14, as are the proportional reductions in them by 5 years of tamoxifen, so the cumulative reduction in mortality is more than twice as big at 15 years as at 5 years after diagnosis. These results combine six meta-analyses: anthracycline-based versus no chemotherapy (8000 women); CMF-based versus no chemotherapy (14 000); anthracycline-based versus CMF-based chemotherapy (14 000); about 5 years of tamoxifen versus none (15 000); about 1-2 years of tamoxifen versus none (33 000); and about 5 years versus 1-2 years of tamoxifen (18 000). Finally, allocation to ovarian ablation or suppression (8000 women) also significantly reduces breast cancer mortality, but appears to do so only in the absence of other systemic treatments. For middle-aged women with ER-positive disease (the commonest type of breast cancer), the breast cancer mortality rate throughout the next 15 years would be approximately halved by 6 months of anthracycline-based chemotherapy (with a combination such as FAC or FEC) followed by 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. For, if mortality reductions of 38% (age <50 years) and 20% (age 50-69 years) from such chemotherapy were followed by a further reduction of 31% from tamoxifen in the risks that remain, the final mortality reductions would be 57% and 45%, respectively (and, the trial results could well have been somewhat stronger if there had been full compliance with the allocated treatments). Overall survival would be comparably improved, since these treatments have relatively small effects on mortality from the aggregate of all other causes. Interpretation Some of the widely practicable adjuvant drug treatments that were being tested in the 1980s, which substantially reduced 5-year recurrence rates (but had somewhat less effect on 5-year mortality rates), also substantially reduce 15-year mortality rates. Further improvements in long-term survival could well be available from newer drugs, or better use of older drugs.
  • Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group, EBCTCG, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Lancet (London, England). - 1474-547X. ; 366:9503, s. 2087-2106
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In early breast cancer, variations in local treatment that substantially affect the risk of locoregional recurrence could also affect long-term breast cancer mortality. To examine this relationship, collaborative meta-analyses were undertaken, based on individual patient data, of the relevant randomised trials that began by 1995. METHODS: Information was available on 42,000 women in 78 randomised treatment comparisons (radiotherapy vs no radiotherapy, 23,500; more vs less surgery, 9300; more surgery vs radiotherapy, 9300). 24 types of local treatment comparison were identified. To help relate the effect on local (ie, locoregional) recurrence to that on breast cancer mortality, these were grouped according to whether or not the 5-year local recurrence risk exceeded 10% (<10%, 17,000 women; >10%, 25,000 women). FINDINGS: About three-quarters of the eventual local recurrence risk occurred during the first 5 years. In the comparisons that involved little (<10%) difference in 5-year local recurrence risk there was little difference in 15-year breast cancer mortality. Among the 25,000 women in the comparisons that involved substantial (>10%) differences, however, 5-year local recurrence risks were 7% active versus 26% control (absolute reduction 19%), and 15-year breast cancer mortality risks were 44.6% versus 49.5% (absolute reduction 5.0%, SE 0.8, 2p<0.00001). These 25,000 women included 7300 with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in trials of radiotherapy (generally just to the conserved breast), with 5-year local recurrence risks (mainly in the conserved breast, as most had axillary clearance and node-negative disease) 7% versus 26% (reduction 19%), and 15-year breast cancer mortality risks 30.5% versus 35.9% (reduction 5.4%, SE 1.7, 2p=0.0002; overall mortality reduction 5.3%, SE 1.8, 2p=0.005). They also included 8500 with mastectomy, axillary clearance, and node-positive disease in trials of radiotherapy (generally to the chest wall and regional lymph nodes), with similar absolute gains from radiotherapy; 5-year local recurrence risks (mainly at these sites) 6% versus 23% (reduction 17%), and 15-year breast cancer mortality risks 54.7% versus 60.1% (reduction 5.4%, SE 1.3, 2p=0.0002; overall mortality reduction 4.4%, SE 1.2, 2p=0.0009). Radiotherapy produced similar proportional reductions in local recurrence in all women (irrespective of age or tumour characteristics) and in all major trials of radiotherapy versus not (recent or older; with or without systemic therapy), so large absolute reductions in local recurrence were seen only if the control risk was large. To help assess the life-threatening side-effects of radiotherapy, the trials of radiotherapy versus not were combined with those of radiotherapy versus more surgery. There was, at least with some of the older radiotherapy regimens, a significant excess incidence of contralateral breast cancer (rate ratio 1.18, SE 0.06, 2p=0.002) and a significant excess of non-breast-cancer mortality in irradiated women (rate ratio 1.12, SE 0.04, 2p=0.001). Both were slight during the first 5 years, but continued after year 15. The excess mortality was mainly from heart disease (rate ratio 1.27, SE 0.07, 2p=0.0001) and lung cancer (rate ratio 1.78, SE 0.22, 2p=0.0004). INTERPRETATION: In these trials, avoidance of a local recurrence in the conserved breast after BCS and avoidance of a local recurrence elsewhere (eg, the chest wall or regional nodes) after mastectomy were of comparable relevance to 15-year breast cancer mortality. Differences in local treatment that substantially affect local recurrence rates would, in the hypothetical absence of any other causes of death, avoid about one breast cancer death over the next 15 years for every four local recurrences avoided, and should reduce 15-year overall mortality.
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