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Sökning: WFRF:(Dina C)

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  • Johar, Dina, et al. (författare)
  • Inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species, programmed (necrotic-like and apoptotic) cell death and cancer
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Roczniki Akademii Medycznej w Bialymstoku (1995). ; 49, s. 31-39
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this short review we attempt to establish and/or strengthen connections between clinical, inflammatory manifestation of cancer, inflammatory processes driven by lipoxy-metabolites and their contribution to immortalized phenotype and apoptosis inhibition. Particularly the resemblance between symptoms of inflammation and signs associated with cancer chemotherapy and/or cytokine therapy is illustrated. In this context the role of apoptosis and necrosis in inflammation as well as the role of RedOx processes and lipid-oxidizing enzymes particularly cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and also to lesser extend the 5-lipooxygenase (5-LOX) is highlighted. The multitude of biological effects of reactive oxygen species is shortly summarized and some aspects of it are being discussed in greater detail. Apoptotic cell death is discussed in the context of the "resolve-phase" of an inflammatory response. The disturbance of apoptosis is mainly deliberated in the framework of insufficient removal of immuno-effector cells that may cause autoimmunity. The role of COX-2 in apoptosis resistance is being highlighted mainly in the context of malignant transformation. The mechanism of cell death (apoptotic or necrotic) and its influence on the immune system and potential benefits of necrotic cell death induction during cancer chemotherapy is indicated.
  • Lehmann, S, et al. (författare)
  • Targeting p53 in vivo : a first-in-man study with the p53-targeting compound APR-246 in refractory hematologic malignancies and prostate cancer
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - : American Society of Clinical Oncology. - 0732-183X .- 1527-7755. ; 30:29, s. 3633-3639
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: APR-246 (PRIMA-1MET) is a novel drug that restores transcriptional activity of unfolded wild-type or mutant p53. The main aims of this first-in-human trial were to determine maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and pharmacokinetics (PK) of APR-246.PATIENTS AND METHODS: APR-246 was administered as a 2-hour intravenous infusion once per day for 4 consecutive days in 22 patients with hematologic malignancies and prostate cancer. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 7) and prostate cancer (n = 7) were the most frequent diagnoses. Starting dose was 2 mg/kg with dose escalations up to 90 mg/kg.RESULTS: MTD was defined as 60 mg/kg. The drug was well tolerated, and the most common adverse effects were fatigue, dizziness, headache, and confusion. DLTs were increased ALT/AST (n = 1), dizziness, confusion, and sensory disturbances (n = 2). PK showed little interindividual variation and were neither dose nor time dependent; terminal half-life was 4 to 5 hours. Tumor cells showed cell cycle arrest, increased apoptosis, and upregulation of p53 target genes in several patients. Global gene expression analysis revealed changes in genes regulating proliferation and cell death. One patient with AML who had a p53 core domain mutation showed a reduction of blast percentage from 46% to 26% in the bone marrow, and one patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with a p53 splice site mutation showed a minor response.CONCLUSION: We conclude that APR-246 is safe at predicted therapeutic plasma levels, shows a favorable pharmacokinetic profile, and can induce p53-dependent biologic effects in tumor cells in vivo.
  • Lindahl, Bertil, et al. (författare)
  • An algorithm for rule-in and rule-out of acute myocardial infarction using a novel troponin I assay
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Heart. - 1355-6037 .- 1468-201X. ; 103:2, s. 125-131
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To derive and validate a hybrid algorithm for rule-out and rule-in of acute myocardial infarction based on measurements at presentation and after 2 hours with a novel cardiac troponin I (cTnI) assay. Methods The algorithm was derived and validated in two cohorts (605 and 592 patients) from multicentre studies enrolling chest pain patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with onset of last episode within 12 hours. The index diagnosis and cardiovascular events up to 30 days were adjudicated by independent reviewers. Results In the validation cohort, 32.6% of the patients were ruled out on ED presentation, 6.1% were ruled in and 61.3% remained undetermined. A further 22% could be ruled out and 9.8% ruled in, after 2 hours. In total, 54.6% of the patients were ruled out with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.4% (95% CI 97.8% to 99.9%) and a sensitivity of 97.7% (95% CI 91.9% to 99.7%); 15.8% were ruled in with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 74.5% (95% CI 64.8% to 82.2%) and a specificity of 95.2% (95% CI 93.0% to 96.9%); and 29.6% remained undetermined after 2 hours. No patient in the rule-out group died during the 30-day follow-up in the two cohorts. Conclusions This novel two-step algorithm based on cTnI measurements enabled just over a third of the patients with acute chest pain to be ruled in or ruled out already at presentation and an additional third after 2 hours. This strategy maximises the speed of rule-out and rule-in while maintaining a high NPV and PPV, respectively.
  • Ljung, Lina, et al. (författare)
  • Sensitivity of undetectable level of high-sensitivity troponin T at presentation in a large non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction cohort of early presenters
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cardiology. - 0167-5273 .- 1874-1754. ; 284, s. 6-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity for myocardial infarction (MI) when using an undetectable level of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT < 5 ng/L) at presentation combined with a non-ischemic electrocardiogram (ECG), to rule out MI in a non-ST-segment elevation MI (NSTEMI) cohort presenting ≤2 h from symptom onset. We also aimed to compare baseline characteristics and 30-day outcome in NSTEMI patients presenting with and without hs-cTnT < 5 ng/L.METHODS: All patients admitted to five centers in Sweden 2011-2015, after the introduction of hs-cTnT, who presented ≤2 h from symptom onset and received a final diagnosis of NSTEMI, were identified through the SWEDEHEART registry. These data and data of hs-cTnT levels were verified in the hospitals' medical records. The registry provided baseline and outcome data.RESULTS: Twenty-four (2.6%) of 911 NSTEMI patients presented with hs-cTnT < 5 ng/L. In patients presenting >1-≤2 h from symptom onset the sensitivity for MI when combining hs-cTnT and ECG was 99.4% (95% CI 98.4%-99.8%). In patients presenting ≤1 h, and in patients aged ≤65 years without prior MI, the sensitivity was insufficient. NSTEMI patients presenting with hs-cTnT < 5 ng/L were younger and had less often a prior MI. A total of 62.5 vs. 63.5% of the NSTEMI patients presenting with and without hs-cTnT < 5 ng/L underwent revascularization within 30 days and 4.5 and 3.2% died respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Hs-cTnT < 5 ng/L at presentation combined with a non-ischemic ECG may be used to rule out MI in patients presenting as early as >1 h from symptom onset with a sufficient sensitivity.
  • Perrot, Nicolas, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic and In Vitro Inhibition of PCSK9 and Calcific Aortic Valve Stenosis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JACC: Basic to Translational Science. - : Elsevier Inc.. - 2452-302X. ; 5:7, s. 649-661
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The authors investigated whether PCSK9 inhibition could represent a therapeutic strategy in calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). A meta-analysis of 10 studies was performed to determine the impact of the PCSK9 R46L variant on CAVS, and the authors found that CAVS was less prevalent in carriers of this variant (odds ratio: 0.80 [95% confidence interval: 0.70 to 0.91]; p = 0.0011) compared with noncarriers. PCSK9 expression was higher in the aortic valves of patients CAVS compared with control patients. In human valve interstitials cells submitted to a pro-osteogenic medium, PCSK9 levels increased and a PCSK9 neutralizing antibody significantly reduced calcium accumulation.
  • Perrot, Nicolas, et al. (författare)
  • Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity, genetics and calcific aortic valve stenosis in humans
  • Ingår i: Heart. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 1355-6037. ; 106:18, s. 1407-1412
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity has been shown to predict calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) outcomes. Our objective was to test the association between plasma Lp-PLA2 activity and genetically elevated Lp-PLA2 mass/activity with CAVS in humans. Methods and results: Lp-PLA2 activity was measured in 890 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, including 476 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for CAVS and 414 control patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. After multivariable adjustment, Lp-PLA2 activity was positively associated with the presence of CAVS (OR=1.21 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.41) per SD increment). We selected four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the PLA2G7 locus associated with either Lp-PLA2 mass or activity (rs7756935, rs1421368, rs1805017 and rs4498351). Genetic association studies were performed in eight cohorts: Quebec-CAVS (1009 cases/1017 controls), UK Biobank (1350 cases/349 043 controls), European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk (504 cases/20 307 controls), Genetic Epidemiology Research on Aging (3469 cases/51 723 controls), Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (682 cases/5963 controls) and three French cohorts (3123 cases/6532 controls), totalling 10 137 CAVS cases and 434 585 controls. A fixed-effect meta-analysis using the inverse-variance weighted method revealed that none of the four SNPs was associated with CAVS (OR=0.99 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.02, p=0.55) for rs7756935, 0.97 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.01, p=0.11) for rs1421368, 1.00 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.01, p=0.29) for rs1805017, and 1.00 (95% CI 0.97 to 1.04, p=0.87) for rs4498351). Conclusions: Higher Lp-PLA2 activity is significantly associated with the presence of CAVS and might represent a biomarker of CAVS in patients with heart disease. Results of our genetic association study suggest that Lp-PLA2 is however unlikely to represent a causal risk factor or therapeutic target for CAVS.
  • Presneau, Nadege, et al. (författare)
  • Role of the transcription factor T (brachyury) in the pathogenesis of sporadic chordoma: a genetic and functional-based study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pathology. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0022-3417. ; 223:3, s. 327-335
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A variety of analyses, including fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative PCR (qPCR) and array CGH (aCGH), have been performed on a series of chordomas from 181 patients. Twelve of 181 (7%) tumours displayed amplification of the T locus and an additional two cases showed focal amplification; 70/181 (39%) tumours were polysomic for chromosome 6, and 8/181 (4.5%) primary tumours showed a minor allelic gain of T as assessed by FISH. No germline alteration of the T locus was identified in non-neoplastic tissue from 40 patients. Copy number gain of T was seen in a similar percentage of sacrococcygeal, mobile spine and base of skull tumours. Knockdown of T in the cell line, U-CH1, which showed polysomy of chromosome 6 involving 6q27, resulted in a marked decrease in cell proliferation and morphological features consistent with a senescence-like phenotype. The U-CH1 cell line was validated as representing chordoma by the generation of xenografts, which showed typical chordoma morphology and immunohistochemistry in the NOD/SCID/interleukin 2 receptor [IL2r]gamma(null) mouse model. In conclusion, chromosomal aberrations resulting in gain of the T locus are common in sporadic chordomas and expression of this gene is critical for proliferation of chordoma cells in vitro. Copyright (C) 2010 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Rubinstein, Yaffa R., et al. (författare)
  • The case for open science : rare diseases
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JAMIA Open. - 2574-2531. ; 3:3, s. 472-486
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The premise of Open Science is that research and medical management will progress faster if data and knowledge are openly shared. The value of Open Science is nowhere more important and appreciated than in the rare disease (RD) community. Research into RDs has been limited by insufficient patient data and resources, a paucity of trained disease experts, and lack of therapeutics, leading to long delays in diagnosis and treatment. These issues can be ameliorated by following the principles and practices of sharing that are intrinsic to Open Science. Here, we describe how the RD community has adopted the core pillars of Open Science, adding new initiatives to promote care and research for RD patients and, ultimately, for all of medicine. We also present recommendations that can advance Open Science more globally.
  • Solem, C., et al. (författare)
  • Phosphoglycerate Mutase Is a Highly Efficient Enzyme without Flux Control in Lactococcus lactis
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology. - 1464-1801 .- 1475-3774. ; 18:3, s. 174-180
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM), which catalyzes the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate, was examined in Lactococcus lactis with respect to its function, kinetics and glycolytic flux control. A library of strains with PGM activities ranging between 15-465% of the wild-type level was constructed by replacing the native promoter of pgm with synthetic promoters of varying strengths. The specific growth rate and glucose flux were found to be maximal at the wild-type level at which PGM had no flux control. Low flux control of PGM was found on mixed acid fluxes at highly reduced PGM activities. At the wild-type level PGM operated very far from V-max. Consequently, in a strain with only 15% PGM activity, the catalytic rate of PGM was almost six times higher than in the wildtype. K-m of PGM for 3-phosphoglycerate was 1.0 m M and k(cat) was 3,200 s(-1). The L. lactis PGM was dependent on 2,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid for activity, which showed that the enzyme is of the dPGM type in accordance with its predicted homology to dPGM enzymes from other organisms. In conclusion, PGM from L. lactis is a highly efficient catalyst, which partially explains why this enzyme has limited control in wild-type L. lactis. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • Song, Lin, et al. (författare)
  • In situ study of spray deposited titania photoanodes for scalable fabrication of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nano Energy. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. - 2211-2855 .- 2211-3282. ; 40, s. 317-326
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Spray coating, a cost-effective and scalable technique, has been employed for fabricating titania films for solidstate dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs). The spray deposition of films is inherently based on kinetic processes with great complexity, which poses great challenges in its understanding. In the present work, the kinetics of the structure evolution of deposited films are investigated by in situ grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering during spray deposition. The spray-solution is prepared via a polystyrene-block-polyethylene oxide (PS-b-PEO) template assisted sol-gel synthesis. It is turned into nanostructured titania/PS-b-PEO composite films via spray deposition. The information about nanostructure length scales of the composite film is obtained in real-time and in situ, revealing the morphological evolution during the spray deposition. The resulting mesoporous titania films serve as photoanodes of ssDSSCs, which couple with the solution-cast hole transport layer to form the active layers. The well working ssDSSCs demonstrate the successful use of spray deposition as a large-scale manufacturing process for photoanodes.
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