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Sökning: WFRF:(Druid Henrik)

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  • Föregående 1[2]3456Nästa
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11.
  • Druid, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Incomplete shored exit wounds : A report of three cases
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. - 0195-7910 .- 1533-404X. ; 21:3, s. 220-224
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Typical and atypical exit wounds are well described in the forensic literature. Included in the descriptions of atypical exit wounds are perforating, 'shored' exit wounds, in which the perforation of the skin is associated with an abrasion, whether or not the bullet fully exits the body. The authors describe an atypical, incomplete, shored exit wound in which the skin was abraded by supporting material at the site the bullet was recovered, but there was no associated perforation of the skin. Recognition of this injury pattern can be important in reconstruction of the crime scene in relation to the victim at the time of the shooting.
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13.
  • Ernst, Aurélie, et al. (författare)
  • Neurogenesis in the Striatum of the Adult Human Brain
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cell. - Cambridge, MA 02139, USA : Elsevier. - 0092-8674 .- 1097-4172. ; 156:5, s. 1072-1083
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurons are added throughout life in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb in most mammals, although humans represent an exception without detectable olfactory bulb neurogenesis. Nevertheless, neuroblasts are generated in the lateral ventricle wall in humans, the neurogenic niche for olfactory bulb neurons in other mammals. We show that, in humans, new neurons integrate adjacent to this neurogenic niche, in the striatum. The neuronal turnover in the striatum appears restricted to interneurons and we show that postnatally generated striatal neurons are preferentially depleted in Huntington’s disease. This demonstrates a unique pattern of neurogenesis in the adult human brain.  
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14.
  • Gudmannsson, Petur, et al. (författare)
  • A Unique Fatal Moose Attack Mimicking Homicide
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Forensic Sciences. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0022-1198 .- 1556-4029. ; 63:2, s. 622-625
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fatalities caused by animal attacks are rare, but have the potential to mimic homicide. We present a case in which a moose attacked and killed a woman who was walking her dog in a forest. Autopsy showed widespread blunt trauma with a large laceration on one leg in which blades of grass were embedded. Flail chest was the cause of death. The case was initially conceived as homicide by means of a riding lawn mower. A review of the case by moose experts and analyses of biological trace material that proved to originate from moose, established the true source of injury. The dog probably provoked a moose, which, in response, stomped and gored the victim to death. The injuries resembled those previously reported from attacks by cattle and water buffalo. Fatal moose attacks constitute an extremely rare threat in boreal areas, but can be considered in traumatic deaths of unknown cause.
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15.
  • Guerrieri, Davide, et al. (författare)
  • Postmortem and Toxicological Findings in a Series of Furanylfentanyl-Related Deaths
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Analytical Toxicology. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0146-4760 .- 1945-2403. ; 41:3, s. 242-249
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Over the course of 4 months in 2015 and 2016, a cluster of seven fatal intoxications involving the opioid-analogue furanylfentanyl occurred in Sweden; toxicological analysis showed presence of furanylfentanyl either as the only drug or in combination with other illicit substances. Previous publications have only reported non-lethal furanylfentanyl intoxications. In the cases presented here, furanylfentanyl intoxication-alone or in combination with other drugs-was determined to be the cause of death by the responsible pathologist. All victims were young (24-37 years old) males, five of which had a well-documented history of drug abuse. Femoral blood concentration of furanylfentanyl ranged from 0.41 ng/g to 2.47 ng/g blood. Five cases presented a complex panel of drugs of abuse and prescription drugs. Moreover, in five cases the concurrent presence of pregabalin corroborates previous observations indicating pregabalin as a possible contributing factor in polydrug intoxications. We conclude that it is difficult to establish a specific lethal concentration of furanylfentanyl, due to incompletely known effects of possible pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions with other drugs, as well as to the unknown degree of tolerance to opioids. We suggest that a full toxicological screening-to assess the possibility of drug interactions-together with segmental hair analysis regarding opioids-to estimate the level of opioid tolerance-be carried out to assist in the interpretation of cases involving synthetic opioids such as furanylfentanyl.
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16.
  • Holmgren, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Enantioselective analysis of citalopram and its metabolites in postmortem blood and genotyping for CYD2D6 and CYP2C19
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Analytical Toxicology. - 0146-4760 .- 1945-2403. ; 28:2, s. 94-104
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is one of the most commonly found drugs in Swedish forensic autopsy cases. Citalopram is a racemic drug with 50:50 of the S- and R- enantiomers. Enantioselective analysis of citalopram and its metabolites desmethylcitalopram and didesmethylcitalopram were performed in femoral blood from 53 autopsy cases by a chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The mean (± standard deviation) S/R ratio for citalopram was 0.67 ± 0.25 and for desmethylcitalopram, 0.68 ± 0.20. We found increasing S/R ratios with increasing concentrations of citalopram. We also found that high citalopram S/R ratios were associated with a high parent drug-to-metabolite ratio and may be an indicator of recent intake. Citalopram is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, 2C19, and 2D6. Genotyping for the polymorphic CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 revealed no poor metabolizers regarding CYP2C19 and only 2 (3.8%) poor metabolizers regarding CYP2D6. The presence of drugs metabolized by and/or inhibiting these enzymes in several of the cases suggests that such pharmacokinetic interactions are a more important (practical) problem than metabolic deficiency. Enantioselective analysis of citalopram and its metabolites can provide additional information when interpreting forensic toxicology results and might be a necessity in the future.
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17.
  • Jonsson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Fatal drug poisonings in a Swedish general population.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: BMC clinical pharmacology. - : BioMed Central. - 1472-6904. ; 9:7, s. 1-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pharmaceutical drug poisonings have previously been reported using single sources of information, either hospital data or forensic data, which might not reveal the true incidence. We therefore aimed to estimate the incidence of suspected fatal drug poisonings, defined as poisonings by pharmaceutical agents, by using all relevant case records from various sources in a Swedish population. METHODS: Every seventh randomly selected deceased in three counties in southeastern Sweden during a one-year period was identified in the Cause of Death Register. Relevant case records (death certificates, files from hospitals and/or primary care centres and medico-legal files) were reviewed for all study subjects. RESULTS: Of 1574 deceased study subjects, 12 cases were classified as pharmaceutical drug poisonings according to the death certificates and 10 according to the medico-legal files. When reviewing all available data sources, 9 subjects (0.57%; 95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.94%) were classified as drug poisonings, corresponding to an incidence of 6.5 (95% confidence interval: 2.3-10.7) per 100 000 person-years in the general population. The drug groups most often implicated were benzodiazepines (33%), antihistamines (33%) and analgesics (22%). CONCLUSIONS: Fatal drug poisonings is a relatively common cause of death in Sweden. By using multiple sources of information when investigating the proportion of fatal poisonings in a population, more accurate estimates may be obtained.
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18.
  • Jönsson, Anna, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Cause of death and drug use pattern in deceased drug addicts in Sweden, 2002-2003
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Forensic Science International. - 0379-0738 .- 1872-6283. ; 169:2-3, s. 101-107
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Compared with their contemporaries, individuals abusing illicit drugs suffer a higher risk of premature death. In Sweden, a simple protocol for registration of fatalities among abusers of alcohol, pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, or other substances, has been used by the forensic pathologists since 2001. This routine was introduced to allow for an evaluation of the cause and manner of death, and patterns of abuse among different groups of abusers. We explored the data on drug abusers (i.e. abusers of illicit drugs) subjected to a forensic autopsy 2002-2003. The Swedish forensic pathologists examined 10,273 dead victims during the study period and 7% (743/10,273) of the cases were classified as drug abusers. Toxicological analyses were carried out in 99% (736/743) and illicit drugs were detected in 70% (514/736) of these. On average, 3.8 substances (legal or illegal) were found per case. The most common substances were ethanol and morphine, detected in 43 and 35% of the cases, respectively. When exploring the importance of the different substances for the cause of death, we found that the detection of some substances, such as fentanyl and morphine, strongly indicated a poisoning, whereas certain other substances, such as benzodiazepines more often were incidental findings. In total, 50% (372/743) died of poisoning, whereas only 22% (161/743) died of natural causes. Death was considered to be directly or indirectly due to drug abuse in 47% (346/743), whereas evidence of drug abuse was an incidental finding in 21% (153/743) or based on case history alone in 33% (244/743). We believe that this strategy to prospectively categorize deaths among drug addicts constitutes a simple means of standardizing the surveillance of the death toll among drug addicts that could allow for comparisons over time and between countries. © 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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19.
  • Jönsson, Anna K., et al. (författare)
  • Preventable drug related mortality in a Swedish population
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. - 1053-8569 .- 1099-1557. ; 19:2, s. 211-215
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Several studies indicate that the medical burden of fatal adverse drug reactions (FADRs) is significant, but the preventability of FADRs in the general population is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of preventable FADRs and preventable fatal drug poisonings (FDPs) in a Swedish population. METHODS: Previously, a population-based sample of 1574 deceased subjects was scrutinised for FADRs and FDPs using relevant case records, including death certificates, medical charts and medico-legal files. Forty-nine cases (3%) of FADRs and nine cases (0.6%) of FDPs were identified in 57 subjects. In this study, the preventability of all these identified FADRs and FDPs was evaluated by clinical experts in a stepwise manner, applying a set of predefined and well established preventability criteria. Only cases for which consensus was achieved were included in the study. RESULTS: Of 49 FADRs, 14% (seven fatalities) was considered definitely or possibly preventable and four of these were due to the presence of a contraindication for the drug. All nine FDPs were considered possibly preventable. As one subject had a combination of an FADR and an FDP, a total of 15 persons (26%) were considered having a definitely or possibly preventable FADR or FDP, corresponding to 0.95% of all deceased subjects in Sweden. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that approximately one fourth of FADRs and FDPs could be prevented. Therefore, an increased awareness of the possibility to reduce the risk of fatal events due to pharmaceutical drugs is warranted.
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20.
  • Jönsson, Anna K, et al. (författare)
  • Sedative and hypnotic drugs-Fatal and non-fatal reference blood concentrations
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Forensic Science International. - : Elsevier. - 0379-0738 .- 1872-6283. ; 236, s. 138-145
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In postmortem investigations of fatal intoxications it is often challenging to determine which drug/s caused the death. To improve the interpretation of postmortem blood concentrations of sedative and hypnotic drugs and/or clonazepam, all medico-legal autopsies in Sweden - where these drugs had been detected in femoral vein blood during 1992-2006 - were identified in the databases of the National Board of Forensic Medicine. For each drug, concentrations in postmortem control cases - where the cause of death was not intoxication and where incapacitation by drugs could be excluded - were compiled as well as the levels found in living subjects; drugged driving cases and therapeutic drug monitoring cases. Subsequently, fatal intoxications were assessed with regards to the primary substances contributing to death, and blood levels were compiled for single and multiple drug intoxications. The postmortem femoral blood levels are reported for 16 sedative and hypnotic drugs, based on findings in 3560 autopsy cases. The cases were classified as single substance intoxications (N = 498), multiple substance intoxications (N = 1555) and postmortem controls (N = 1507). Each autopsy case could be represented more than once in the group of multiple intoxications and among the postmortem controls if more than one of the included substances were detected. The concentration ranges for all groups are provided. Overlap in concentrations between fatal intoxications and reference groups was seen for most substances. However, the concentrations found in single and multiple intoxications were significantly higher than concentrations found in postmortem controls for all substances except alprazolam and triazolam. Concentrations observed among drugged drivers were similar to the concentrations observed among the therapeutic drug monitoring cases. Flunitrazepam was the substance with the highest number of single intoxications, when related to sales. In summary, this study provides reference drug concentrations primarily to be used for improving interpretation of postmortem drug levels in obscure cases, but which also may assist in drug safety work and in pharmacovigilance efforts.
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