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Sökning: WFRF:(Druid Henrik)

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31.
  • Söderberg, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • Antipsychotics - Postmortem fatal and non-fatal reference concentrations
  • Ingår i: Forensic Science International. - : Elsevier. - 0379-0738 .- 1872-6283. ; 266, s. 91-101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Making the diagnosis fatal intoxication is a challenging task for the forensic pathologist and toxicologist, particularly when the cases involve substances where reference information is scarce or not at all available. This study presents postmortem femoral blood concentrations for 24 antipsychotic substances, based on samples collected and analyzed from 4949 autopsy cases in Sweden during 1992-2010. In addition our study provides information about the prevalence of different antipsychotics in accidental, suicidal, homicidal and uncertain deaths.The data have been selected and evaluated according to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as a manual, multi-reviewer, case-by-case evaluation. The reference information is subdivided into intoxications by one specific substance only (group A, n = 259), multi-substance intoxications (group B, n = 614) and postmortem controls, consisting of deaths not involving incapacitation by substances (group C, n = 507). Moreover, the results are compared with data based on therapeutic drug monitoring, and data collected from driving under the influence cases.Median concentrations in group A were significantly higher than in group C for all substances evaluated. For 17 of 24 substances, the median concentrations in group B were significantly higher than in group C. In general, the therapeutic drug monitoring and driving under the influence concentrations were similar to, or lower than, the concentrations in group C.
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32.
  • Taqi, Malik Mumtaz, et al. (författare)
  • Prodynorphin CpG-SNPs associated with alcohol dependence : elevated methylation in the brain of human alcoholics
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Addiction Biology. - 1355-6215 .- 1369-1600. ; 16:3, s. 499-509
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors may influence the risk for neuropsychiatric disease through their effects on gene transcription. Mechanistically, these effects may be integrated through regulation of methylation of CpG dinucleotides overlapping with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with a disorder. We addressed this hypothesis by analyzing methylation of prodynorphin (PDYN) CpG-SNPs associated with alcohol dependence, in human alcoholics. Postmortem specimens of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dl-PFC) involved in cognitive control of addictive behavior were obtained from 14 alcohol-dependent and 14 control subjects. Methylation was measured by pyrosequencing after bisulfite treatment of DNA. DNA binding proteins were analyzed by electromobility shift assay. Three PDYN CpG-SNPs associated with alcoholism were found to be differently methylated in the human brain. In the dl-PFC of alcoholics, methylation levels of the C, non-risk variant of 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) SNP (rs2235749; C > T) were increased, and positively correlated with dynorphins. A DNA-binding factor that differentially targeted the T, risk allele and methylated and unmethylated C allele of this SNP was identified in the brain. The findings suggest a causal link between alcoholism-associated PDYN 3'-UTR CpG-SNP methylation, activation of PDYN transcription and vulnerability of individuals with the C, non-risk allele(s) to develop alcohol dependence.
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33.
  • Tjomsland, Vegard, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Interleukin 1α sustains the expression of inflammatory factors in human pancreatic cancer microenvironment by targeting cancer-associated fibroblasts
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Neoplasia. - : Neoplasia Press. - 1522-8002 .- 1476-5586. ; 13:8, s. 664-675
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The tumor microenvironment in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is dynamic with an extensive interaction between the stroma and tumor cells. The aim for this study was to delineate the cross-talk between PDAC and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) with focus on the mechanism creating the chronic inflammatory tumor milieu. We assessed the effects of the cross-talk between primary PDAC and CAF cell lines on the creation and sustenance of the inflammatory tumor microenvironment in pancreatic cancer. The coculture of primary PDAC and CAF cell lines enhanced the levels of inflammatory factors including IL-1á, IL-6, CXCL8, VEGFA, CCL20, and COX-2. CAFs were superior to tumor cells regarding the production of most inflammatory factors and tumor cell associated IL-1á was established as the initiator of the enhanced production of inflammatory factors through the binding of IL-1á to the active IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1) expressed predominantly by CAFs. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between IL-1á and CXCL8 expression levels in PDAC tissues and correlation between IL-1á expression and the clinical outcome of the patients. This confirmed an important role for the IL-1 signaling cascade in the creation and sustenance of a tumor favorable microenvironment. Neutralization of the IL-1á signaling efficiently diminished the cross-talk induced production of inflammatory factors. These data suggest that the cross-talk between PDAC cells and the main stroma cell type, i.e. CAFs, is one essential factor in the formation of the inflammatory tumor environment and we propose that neutralization of the IL-1á signaling might be a potential therapy for this cancer.
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34.
  • Tjomsland, Vegard, et al. (författare)
  • The Desmoplastic Stroma Plays an Essential Role in the Accumulation and Modulation of Infiltrated Immune Cells in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Clinical & Developmental Immunology. - : Hindawi Publishing Corporation. - 1740-2522 .- 1740-2530. ; 2011:212810
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tumor microenvironment is composed of tumor cells, fibroblasts, and infiltrating immune cells, which all work together and create an inflammatory environment favoring tumor progression. The present study aimed to investigate the role of the desmoplastic stroma in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) regarding expression of inflammatory factors and infiltration of immune cells and their impact on the clinical outcome. The PDAC tissues examined expressed significantly increased levels of immunomodulatory and chemotactic factors (IL-6, TGF beta, IDO, COX-2, CCL2, and CCL20) and immune cell-specific markers corresponding to macrophages, myeloid, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) as compared to controls. Furthermore, short-time survivors had the lowest levels of DC markers. Immunostainings indicated that the different immune cells and inflammatory factors are mainly localized to the desmoplastic stroma. Therapies modulating the inflammatory tumor microenvironment to promote the attraction of DCs and differentiation of monocytes into functional DCs might improve the survival of PDAC patients.
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35.
  • Walz, Lotta, et al. (författare)
  • Metformin - Postmortem fatal and non-fatal reference concentrations in femoral blood and risk factors associated with fatal intoxications
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Forensic Science International. - : ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD. - 0379-0738 .- 1872-6283. ; 303
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background amp; objectives: To improve the interpretation of fatal intoxications by establishing fatal and non-fatal reference concentrations of metformin in postmortem femoral blood and to further evaluate risk factors associated with fatal metformin intoxication. Methods: All forensic autopsies in Sweden where metformin was detected in femoral blood 2011-2016 were identified in the National Board of Forensic Medicine databases (NFMD). The cases were classified as single substance intoxications, A (n = 22), multiple substance intoxications, B (N = 7) and postmortem controls, C (N = 13). The control group consisted of cases where metformin was detected, but the cause of death excluded the incapacitation by metformin or other substances. Strict inclusion criteria were used, and all postmortem cases were assessed by two independent reviewers. All other cases where the inclusion criteria of groups A-C where not met formed group O (N = 78). The forensic findings logged in the NFMD where linked to national registers whereby information on comorbidities, dispensed drugs and clinical data could be obtained. Results: The mean age was 66 +/- 10 years in the total study population and did not differ between the groups. The proportion of men was 64% in group A, 71% in B, 77% in C and 74% in group O. The median values of metformin in group A (48.5 mu g/g; range 13.0-210 mu g/g) and B (21.0 mu g/g; range 4.40-95.0 mu g/g) were significantly (p amp;lt; 0.001 and p = 0.015 respectively) higher than those of the control group C (2.30 mu g/g; range 0.70-21.0 mu g/g). The median concentration of metformin in group A and B was also significantly higher than in group O (4.60 mg/g; range 0.64-54.0 mu g/g) (p amp;lt; 0.001 and p = 0.040 respectively). The results suggest that intoxication with metformin as a cause of death should be considered when the postmortem femoral blood level exceeds about 10 mg/g, although higher levels may be seen in postmortem in cases without incapacitation. The metformin intoxication was confirmed to be intentional in 23% (n = 5) of the single intoxications. Underlying factors identified as important for the remaining fatal metformin intoxications included living alone, any contraindication for the use of metformin, known alcohol abuse and a history of stroke or cardiovascular disease. Conclusions: The reported post mortem femoral blood concentrations of metformin can hopefully contribute to a better interpretation of results in suspected poisonings and obscure cases. Living in a single household, history of cardiovascular disease and contraindications, predominantly alcohol abuse, were associated with fatal metformin intoxication. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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36.
  • Walz, Lotta, et al. (författare)
  • Risk Factors for Fatal Hyperglycaemia Confirmed by Forensic Postmortem Examination - A Nationwide Cohort in Sweden
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 11:10, s. e0164950-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/Hypothesis The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with confirmed fatal hyperglycaemia, which could predispose potentially preventable deaths in individuals on glucose lowering drugs. Methods A retrospective register-based case-control study conducted on a nationwide cohort with individuals who died due to hyperglycaemia as determined by forensic postmortem examination, in Sweden August 2006 to December 2012. Vitreous glucose was used to diagnose hyperglycaemia postmortem. The forensic findings stored in the National Forensic Medicine Database were linked to nationwide registers. Cases that died due to confirmed hyperglycemia with dispensed glucose lowering drugs were identified and living controls with dispensed glucose lowering drugs were randomly selected in the Swedish prescribed drug register and matched on age and sex. Information on comorbidities, dispensed pharmaceuticals, clinical data and socioeconomic factors were obtained for cases and controls. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors associated with fatal hyperglycaemia. Results During the study period 322 individuals, mostly males (79%) with the mean age of 53.9 years (SD. +/- 14) died due to confirmed hyperglycaemia. Risk factors for fatal hyperglycaemia included; insulin treatment (OR = 4.40; 95% CI, 1.96, 9.85), poor glycaemic control (OR = 2.00 95% CI, 1.23, 3.27), inadequate refill-adherence before death (OR = 3.87; 95% CI, 1.99, 7.53), microvascular disease (OR = 3.26; 95% CI, 1.84, 5.79), psychiatric illness (OR = 2.30; 95% CI, 1.32, 4.01), substance abuse (OR = 8.85; 95% CI, 2.34, 35.0) and/or living alone (OR = 2.25; 95% CI, 1.21, 4.18). Conclusions/ Interpretation Our results demonstrate the importance of clinical attention to poor glycaemic control in subjects with psychosocial problems since it may indicate serious non-adherence, which consequently could lead to fatal hyperglycaemia.
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37.
  • Wester, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence of fatal adverse drug reactions : A population based study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. - Chichester, West Sussex United Kingdom : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0306-5251 .- 1365-2125. ; 65:4, s. 573-579
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • What is already known about this subject• Although drugs generally are safe and effective therapies for numerous diseases, adverse drug reactions do occur and may even be fatal.• The incidence of fatal adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients has been estimated to be approximately 5%.• In previous studies the incidence of fatal adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients has been reported, but the incidence of fatal adverse drug reactions in the general population is largely unknown.What this study adds• Fatal adverse drug reactions account for approximately 3% of all deaths in the general population.• Haemorrhages amount to almost two-thirds of the fatal adverse drug reactions and antithrombotic agents are implicated in more than half of the suspected fatal adverse drug reactions.• Fatal adverse drug reactions are estimated to be the seventh most common cause of death in Sweden. Aims: To determine the incidence of fatal adverse drug reactions (FADRs) in a Swedish population. Methods: Every seventh randomly selected deceased in three counties in South-east Sweden during 1 January 2001–31 December 2001 was identified in the Cause of Death Register. Relevant case records (hospitals and/or primary care centres and medicolegal files) were reviewed to identify suspected drug-related fatalities. Results: Of 1574 deceased study subjects, 49 (3.1%; 95% CI 2.2%, 4.0%) were suspected to have died from FADRs. The most common suspected FADRs were gastrointestinal haemorrhages (n = 18; 37%), central nervous system haemorrhages (n = 14; 29%), cardiovascular disorders (n = 5; 10%), other haemorrhages (n = 4; 8%) and renal dysfunction (n = 3; 6%). The drugs most commonly implicated in FADRs were antithrombotic drugs (n = 31; 63%), followed by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (n = 9; 18%), antidepressants (n = 7; 14%) and cardiovascular drugs (n = 4; 8%). Of all the 639 fatalities in hospital 41 (6.4%; 95% CI 4.5%, 8.3%) were suspected to be due to FADRs. Conclusions: The medical burden of FADRs is significant. Haemorrhages were seen in a majority of the FADRs; antithrombotic agents or NSAIDs were implicated in most of these events. These results suggest that preventive measures should be taken to reduce the number of deaths caused by drugs.
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38.
  • Yeung, Maggie, et al. (författare)
  • Dynamics of Oligodendrocyte Generation and Myelination in the Human Brain
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cell. - Maryland Heights : Elsevier. - 0092-8674 .- 1097-4172. ; 159:4, s. 766-774
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The myelination of axons by oligodendrocytes has been suggested to be modulated by experience, which could mediate neural plasticity by optimizing the performance of the circuitry. We have assessed the dynamics of oligodendrocyte generation and myelination in the human brain. The number of oligodendrocytes in the corpus callosum is established in childhood and remains stable after that. Analysis of the integration of nuclear bomb test-derived 14C revealed that myelin is exchanged at a high rate, whereas the oligodendrocyte population in white matter is remarkably stable in humans, with an annual exchange of 1/300 oligodendrocytes. We conclude that oligodendrocyte turnover contributes minimally to myelin remodeling in human white matter and that this instead may be carried out by mature oligodendrocytes, which may facilitate rapid neural plasticity.
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39.
  • Ahmed, Aisha S., et al. (författare)
  • Activation of NF-kappa B in Synovium versus Cartilage from Patients with Advanced Knee Osteoarthritis : A Potential Contributor to Inflammatory Aspects of Disease Progression
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Immunology. - : AMER ASSOC IMMUNOLOGISTS. - 0022-1767 .- 1550-6606. ; 201:7, s. 1918-1927
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim was to assess the activation and association of the NF-kappa B system across synovial membrane (SM) and articular cartilage (AC) in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and ascertain its potential effects on catabolic mediator expression in advanced OA. SM and AC were obtained from 40 OA patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and from 19 postmortem control subjects. NF-kappa B subunit RelA in nuclear and cytosolic fractions and NF-kappa B1-DNA binding in nuclear extracts was assessed by ELISA, whereas NFKB1, RELA, IL-8, IL-6, and MMP3 gene expression were analyzed by reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR in tissues. We observed higher SM nuclear RelA protein levels and upregulated NF-kappa B1-DNA binding in OA patients compared with postmortem controls. However, in AC, lower nuclear RelA levels were observed compared with cytosolic extracts in patients. Nuclear RelA levels correlated positively with NF-kappa B1-DNA binding in SM and AC in patients. SM RELA and MMP3 mRNA levels were upregulated, whereas IL-8 and IL-6 as well as AC RELA were downregulated in patients compared with controls. In SM, nuclear RelA levels correlated positively with MMP3 gene expression in patients. A negative correlation was observed between SM nuclear RelA levels and AC NF-kappa B1-DNA binding, and SM nuclear NF-kappa B1-DNA binding correlated negatively with AC MMP3 and NFKB1 mRNA levels in patients. These findings highlight NF-kappa B-triggered cross-talk and feedback mechanisms between SM and AC in OA. Further, our findings strongly support a role for an activated NF-kappa B system in the transcriptional mechanism of inflammatory processes, especially in SM of patients with advanced OA.
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40.
  • Bergmann, Olaf, et al. (författare)
  • Turnover of Human Cardiomyocytes
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Circulation Research. - : American Heart Association. - 0009-7330. ; 103:12, s. 1494-1495
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)
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