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Sökning: WFRF:(Druid Henrik)

  • Resultat 41-50 av 60
  • Föregående 1234[5]6Nästa
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  • Druid, Henrik (författare)
  • Experimental acute ischemic renal failure and anticoagulation
  • 1998
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is based on experimental studies on acute renal failure (ARF) in rats. The model employed is that of renal artery clamping, which causes a standardized, ischemic trauma to the kidney. The proximate objective of the investigations was to study iflocal coagulation in the kidney may be induced by a pure ischemic trauma, and whether such a coagulation could be of importance for the development of ARF in this experimental model.The content of isotope-labeled fibrinogen and albumin was determined in postischemic kidneys and controls. After 60rnin of unilateral ischemia, the fibrin(ogen)/degradation products (FIB) and albumin content of the kidney increased rapidly and significantly, approximately averaging 200% of controls. The total kidney weight increased only to 130% of controls. Pretreatment with heparin in a dose of 2000 IU/kg BW, markedly attenuated the increase in kidney weight and content of FIB and albumin.Pretreatment with a lower dose of heparin, 400 IU!kg BW, and warfarin (given intraperitoneally 24 h before the experiment) produced a similar reduction of these parameters, whereas pretreatment with a heparin analog, devoid of anticoagulant effect, did not.In post-ischemic kidneys, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of cautiously handled freezedried tissue revealed granular and fibrillary material in the tubules and in Bowman's space, at some locations displaying prominent network patterns. Immunofluorescence against FIB showed immunoreactive material in vasa recta, the peritubular capillaries, Bowman's space and in the tubules. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fibrin strands lacking periodicity were seen. As compared to controls, the postischemic kidneys generally showed a marked dilatation of Bowman's capsule. No fibrin deposition was seen in heparin pretreated animals.To determine if anticoagulation exerts the described effects by prevention of tubular obstructions or by attenuation of increased glomerular permeability, morphometry of glomeruli was performed by light microscopy and TEM Postischemic kidneys from rats pretreated with saline showed a marked widening of Bowman's space, most likely due to tubular obstruction, whereas Bowman's space width in anticoagulated rats did not differ from controls. Structural changes of the podocyte foot processes as a marker of increased macromolecular permeability were severe in both saline pretreated and anticoagulated kidneys.Glomerular filtration rate fell to 6% of controls after 40 min of ischemia. Warfarin-pretreatment attenuated this decrease significantly. Urinary protein excretion increased in both salinepretreated and anticoagulated rats. The excretion of FIB was significantly increased in warfarinpretreated rats, consistent with the previous observation of an attenuation of FIB content of postischemic kidneys by anticoagulation. This result thus suggests that warfarin did not prevent macromolecular sieving, but reduced the formation of protein-containing tubular casts.In summary, these studies show that a pure ischemic injury to the kidney results in a local coagulation in the kidney, most prominently within Bowman's space and in the tubules. It is suggested that the increased glomerular permeability to macromolecules causes sieving of fibrinogen, which may precipitate in Bowman's space and tubuli and promote the development of tubular obstructions.
  • Eriksson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • ST-handledarna bör vara vetenskapligt kompetenta
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Läkartidningen. - Stockholm : Sveriges läkarförbund. - 0023-7205 .- 1652-7518. ; 105:24-25, s. 1817-1817
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Varför särbehandlas vetenskaplig kompetens negativt jämfört med övriga områden som handledarskap, pedagogik, kommunikation och etik? Frågan ställs i detta inlägg om Socialstyrelsens förslag till föreskrifter och allmänna råd om läkarnas specialiseringstjänstgöring. Författningstexten bör justeras så att handledaren är kompetent inom alla områden, uppmanar artikelförfattarna.
  • Holmgren, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Drug interactions : a challenge in interpreting postmortem toxicology results and a problem in the clinical practice
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Objective: Multiple drug intake is a problem in tbe clinical setting with potential to adverse drug reactions and certainly a problem in interpretation of forensic toxicology results. The aims of this investigation were to study the incidence of concomitant drugs in autopsy cases where citalopram or zopiclone were detected in femoral blood and to evaluate the potential of drug interactions.Methods: All medico-legal autopsy cases in Sweden during 1992 to 2003 where citalopram or zopiclone were detected in femoral blood at the toxicological analyses were selected. The number and occurrences of concomitant drugs were recorded together with the concentrations as well as the cause of death.Results: In the 2405 cases with citalopram, 123 different drugs, metabolites excluded, were detected 4679 times giving an average of 1.9 concomitant drugs and 1099 different dmg combinations were identified. The corresponding figures for the cases with zopiclone were 1557 cases, 118 different drugs detected 3984 times giving an average of 2.6 concomitant drugs and 977 different combinations. We found a strong positive correlation between the number of drugs detected and the frequency of cases judged to be intoxication.Conclusions: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions are a potential problem when interpreting forensic toxicological results and the conclusions about the cause and manner of death in the single case must be based on all available information from the investigation and tbe autopsy and on tbe knowledge of tbe pharmacology of included drugs. A better control of prescriptions of what different drugs an individual is given together with a comprehensive therapy control may reduce the risks of adverse drug reactions and unintended or accidental intoxications.
  • Holmgren, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Stability of drugs in stored postmortem femoral blood and vitreous humor
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Forensic Sciences. - 0022-1198 .- 1556-4029. ; 49:4, s. 820-825
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The stability of 46 drugs in postmortem femoral blood stored for one year at -20°C was investigated. The drugs included benzodiazepines, antidepressants, analgetics and hypnotics. For seven drugs we found a significant change in the concentration between the first and second analysis. Five substances; ethanol, desmethylmianserin, 7-amino-nitrazepam, THC and zopiclone showed a decrease in the concentration whereas the concentrations of two substances; ketobemidone and thioridazine increased. However, the changes observed were not of such an order that it would affect the interpretation in normal forensic casework. We also investigated the possible influence of potassium fluoride on the concentrations of the 46 drugs in vitreous humor after storage for one year. For two substances, ethanol and zopiclone, there were significantly lower concentrations in the samples without potassium fluoride. Furthermore, we also studied the correlation between the concentrations in femoral blood and vitreous humor. For 23 substances there was a significant difference between the concentrations in the vitreous humor and femoral blood. Significant correlations between the concentrations in these two specimens were found for 23 substances, indicating that vitreous humor can be an alternative specimen when blood samples are not available, provided that such correlation exists for the particular substance. Statistical analysis also revealed a correlation between the degree of protein binding of the different drugs and percentage of vitreous/femoral blood concentrations.
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  • Resultat 41-50 av 60
  • Föregående 1234[5]6Nästa
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