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Sökning: WFRF:(Durevall Dick 1954 ) > (2010-2014)

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1.
  • Bigsten, Arne, 1947-, et al. (författare)
  • Offshoring and Occupational Wages: Some empirical evidence
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of International Trade and Economic Development. - 0963-8199. ; 21:2, s. 253-269
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Offshoring has changed the pattern of international competition; labor in specific occupations rather than whole firms and sectors are now facing competition. Accordingly, wages in offshorable occupations are affected in new ways. In this article, we investigate the effects of offshoring on relative occupational wages in 13 countries for 1990–2003. Our findings show that offshoring competiveness is associated with higher relative wages in offshorable occupations, and that export growth of IT-related services leads to higher relative wages in offshorable occupations, whereas import growth of such services reduces them.
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3.
  • Durevall, Dick, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Adult Mortality, AIDS and Fertility in Rural Malawi
  • 2013
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The impact of HIV/AIDS on fertility in sub-Saharan Africa has received attention recently, since changes in population structure can impact on future economic development. We analyze the effect of AIDS on actual and desired fertility in rural Malawi, using data from Malawi 2004 Demographic and Health Survey and population censuses. Since AIDS was the dominating cause of death during the 1990s and early 2000s, we use prime-age adult mortality as the key explanatory variable. The focus is on heterogeneity in the response of gender-specific mortality rates. By estimating ordered probit models we show that actual fertility responds positively to male mortality but negatively to female mortality, and that the overall fertility response is positive but small. One interpretation of the findings is that the effects of female and male mortality differ because of an old-age security motive for having children. When a woman risks death before her children grow up, she is less likely to need support of children and demand should be low, but when the risk of husband’s death is high, the woman should expect to rely more on children’s support.
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4.
  • Durevall, Dick, 1954- (författare)
  • East African Community: Pre-conditions for an Effective Monetary Union
  • 2011
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda signed the Treaty for the establishment of the East African Community (EAC) in 1999, which entered into force in July 2000. In 2007 it was signed by Burundi and Rwanda. According to the Treaty, EAC should first form a customs union, then a common market and a monetary union, and finally a political union. The Customs Union was formally completed in 2010, and Common Market Protocol was signed in 2009. Currently the intention is to sign the East African Monetary Union protocol 2012, while the date for actual implementation of the common currency is uncertain. The purpose of this note is to discuss preconditions for an effective monetary union among the EAC members, with a focus on Rwanda. It first outlines potential economic benefits and costs of a monetary union, and then discusses political and institutional preconditions. It concludes that although there are potentially substantive economic net-benefits, a monetary union is a risky project for political reasons. The political will among policymakers is key to successful implementation, and it could vanish with a change of government or because of discontent among influential lobby groups. However, the process towards forming are monetary union is appears to be highly beneficial the EAC members, both directly by improving monetary policy and indirectly by contributing to economic integration.
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5.
  • Durevall, Dick, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Economic Inequality and HIV in Malawi
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: World Development. - 0305-750X. ; 40:7, s. 1435-1451
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To analyze if the spread of HIV is related to economic inequality we estimate multilevel models of the individual probability of HIV infection among young Malawian women. We find a positive association between HIV infection and inequality at both the neighborhood and district levels, but no effect of individual poverty. We also find that the HIV inequality relationship is related to risky sex, gender violence, and return migration, though no variable completely replaces economic inequality as a predictor of HIV infections. The HIV inequality relationship does not seem to be related to bad health, gender gaps in education or women's market work. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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7.
  • Durevall, Dick, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Importing High Food Prices by Exporting: Rice Prices in Lao PDR
  • 2014
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper shows how a developing country, Lao PDR, imports high glutinous rice prices by exporting its staple food to neighboring countries, Vietnam and Thailand. Lao PDR has extensive export controls on rice, generating a sizable difference between domestic and international prices. Controls are relaxed after good harvests, leading to a surge in exports early in the season and rapidly rising prices later in the year. There is thus a strong case for removal of trade restrictions since they give rise to price spikes, keep the long-term price of glutinous rice low, and thereby hinder increases in income from agriculture. Although this is a case study of Lao PDR, the findings may equally apply to other developing countries that export their staple food.
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8.
  • Durevall, Dick, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Inflation Dynamics and Food Prices in Ethiopia
  • 2010
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • During the global food crisis, Ethiopia experienced an unprecedented increase in inflation, among the highest in Africa. Using monthly data over the past decade, we estimate models of inflation to identify the importance of the factors contributing to CPI inflation and three of its major components: cereal prices, food prices, and non-food prices. Our main finding is that movements in international food and goods prices, measured in domestic currency, determined the long-run evolution of domestic prices. In the short run, agricultural supply shocks affected food inflation, causing large deviations from long-run price trends. Monetary policy seems to have accommodated price shocks, but money supply growth affected short-run non-food price inflation. Our results suggest that when analyzing inflation in developing economies with a large food share in consumer prices, world food prices and domestic agricultural production should be considered. Omitting these factors can lead to biased results and misguided policy decisions.
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9.
  • Durevall, Dick, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Inflation Dynamics and Food Prices in Ethiopia
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Development Economics. - 0304-3878. ; 104, s. 89-106
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During the global food crisis, Ethiopia experienced an unprecedented increase in inflation, among the highest in Africa. Using monthly data over the past decade, we estimate models of inflation to identify the importance of the factors contributing to CPI inflation and three of its major components: cereal prices, food prices, and non-food prices. Our main finding is that movements in international food and goods prices, measured in domestic currency, determined the long-run evolution of domestic prices. In the short run, agricultural supply shocks affected food inflation, causing large deviations from long-run price trends. Monetary policy seems to have accommodated price shocks, but money supply growth affected short-run non-food price inflation. Our results suggest that when analyzing inflation in developing economies with a large food share in consumer prices, world food prices and domestic agricultural production should be considered. Omitting these factors can lead to biased results and misguided policy decisions.
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10.
  • Durevall, Dick, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Intimate Partner Violence and HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • 2013
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • We investigate the relationship between intimate partner violence and HIV among married women in sub-Saharan Africa. Using propensity score matching, we find a strong relationship. To investigate mechanisms, we split the sample according to spouse’s HIV status. Neither women with HIV-positive husbands nor those with HIV-negative husbands are more likely to be infected when subject to IPV. To find an effect the two samples have to be combined. Thus the relationship is explained by higher HIV risk among violent men. Neither women’s decreased ability to protect from HIV transmission within marriage, nor their risky sexual behavior explains the link.
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