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Sökning: WFRF:(Durevall Dick 1954 ) > (2010-2014)

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11.
  • Durevall, Dick, 1954- (författare)
  • Is Fair Trade Really Fair: Evidence from the Swedish Coffee Marke
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Swedish Economics National Conference, Umeå, October, 2014.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Consumers pay a premium for Fairtrade coffee, often assuming that it mainly benefits poor producers. This paper analyses how the Fair Trade premium is allocated between roasters and retailers and bean exporting countries. Scanner data for everyday sales from 3,088 stores across Sweden are used to estimate Fair Trade and conventional consumer coffee price differences for ground and instant coffee, while controlling for product characteristics. Information about production costs are then used to calculate the shares of the Fair Trade premium. The allocations depend on how much more costly it is to produce Fair Trade than conventional coffee, given the costs of beans and licences, for which there is limited information. Assuming it costs 5 SEK per kg more to produce Fair Trade ground coffee, which is on the high side, roasters and retailers get 60% of the premium, while they get about 70% when it is assumed that there is no difference in costs. The share going to roaster and retailers for instant coffee is about 70%. Countries that export Fair Trade beans and Fairtrade International, the organization that certifies the beans, thus get 30% to 40% of the premium.
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12.
  • Durevall, Dick, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • The Futile Quest for a Grand Explanation of Long-Run Government Expenditure
  • 2010
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper carries out a critical reappraisal of the two contending theories purporting to explain long-run government spending: Wagner’s Law and different variants of the ratchet effect. We analyze data spanning from the early 19th century until the present day in Sweden and the United Kingdom. Hence, in contrast to previous studies, we evaluate the validity of Wagner’s Law and the ratchet effect hypothesis over a very long time period, starting at the beginning of industrialization. Cointegration analysis is used to investigate the long-run relationships between government expenditure and GDP, focusing on sub-periods and parameter stability. Moreover, we test the ratchet effect hypothesis by estimating models which allow for asymmetric adjustment. According to our main results, Wagner’s Law does not hold in the long run, although the data are consistent with Wagner’s Law between roughly 1860 and the late 1960s in Sweden, and the 1970s in the UK. This can be traced to the formation of the modern public sector, including the introduction of public education, health care, and so forth. Yet Wagner’s Law did not hold during the initial industrialization phase (before 1860), or during recent periods. Finally, we find some evidence of asymmetric adjustment, particularly in the post WWII period in the UK: Public expenditure grows more during bad times than it decreases during good times. However, the ratchet effect is only a short to mediumterm phenomenon.
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14.
  • Durevall, Dick, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Trade Liberalization and Wage Inequality: Empirical Evidence from Bangladesh
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bangladesh Studies. - 1529-0905. ; 16:1-2, s. 13-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The prediction of standard economic theory that trade liberalization reduces income inequality in developing countries has been challenged by several studies during recent decades. This paper explores this issue by analyzing the relationship between trade liberalization and skilled-unskilled wage inequality in the Bangladesh cotton textile industry. First cointegration analysis is used to test for long-run relationships between real wages and trade liberalization over the period 1971-2010, and then a two-equation error correction model is estimated for wages of skilled and unskilled workers. Trade liberalization, proxied by the evolution of Bangladesh’s international trade, is associated with increased real wages for both skilled and unskilled workers. The relative skilled-unskilled workers’ wage fluctuates over the study period, but it has no trend and is not related to increased openness. Trade liberalization thus seems to have increased labor productivity in the cotton textile industry without any noticeable effects on wage inequality.
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15.
  • Durevall, Dick, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Uncovering the impact of the HIV epidemic on fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa: The case of Malawi
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Population Economics. - 0933-1433. ; 24:2, s. 629-655
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract: We evaluate the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on the reproductive behaviour for all women in Malawi, HIV-negative and HIV-positive alike, allowing for heterogeneous response depending on age and prior number of births. HIV/AIDS increases the probability that a young woman gives birth to her first child, while it decreases the probability to give birth of older women and of women who have already given birth. The resulting change in the distribution of fertility across age groups is likely to be more demographically and economically important than changes in the total number of children a woman gives birth to.
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16.
  • Durevall, Dick, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Våld i nära relationer och hiv i Afrika söder om Sahara
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt. - 0345-2646. ; :1, s. 44-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Våld emot kvinnor förs ofta fram som en starkt bidragande faktor till hivepidemin i Afrika söder om Sahara. De empiriska beläggen är dock motstridiga. Dessutom har man i tidigare studier som regel inte undersökt vad som orsakar ett eventuellt statistiskt samband. Med data från åtta afrikanska länder visar vi på ett statistiskt samband mellan kvinnor som utsätts för våld i nära relationer och sannolikheten att de är hivpositiva. Vi visar också att sambandet inte är kausalt utan beror på att de våldsbenägna männen oftare är hivpositiva på grund av ett mer riskfyllt sexuellt beteende.
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  • Resultat 11-16 av 16
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