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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Durevall Dick 1954 ) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Durevall Dick 1954 )

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  • Föregående 1...234567[8]
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71.
  • Durevall, Dick, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Våld i nära relationer och hiv i Afrika söder om Sahara
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt. - 0345-2646. ; :1, s. 44-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Våld emot kvinnor förs ofta fram som en starkt bidragande faktor till hivepidemin i Afrika söder om Sahara. De empiriska beläggen är dock motstridiga. Dessutom har man i tidigare studier som regel inte undersökt vad som orsakar ett eventuellt statistiskt samband. Med data från åtta afrikanska länder visar vi på ett statistiskt samband mellan kvinnor som utsätts för våld i nära relationer och sannolikheten att de är hivpositiva. Vi visar också att sambandet inte är kausalt utan beror på att de våldsbenägna männen oftare är hivpositiva på grund av ett mer riskfyllt sexuellt beteende.
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72.
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75.
  • George, Gavin, et al. (författare)
  • Greater risk for more money: the economics of negotiating condom use amongst sex workers in South Africa
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV. - 09540121 .- 13600451. ; 31:9, s. 1168-1171
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2019, © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. The economics of sex work and the effect on safe sex practices remain understudied. This research contributes to a better understanding of how economic opportunity and vulnerability place sex workers (SWs) at an increased risk of STI infection. Using quantitative and qualitative methods, we investigated the role of economic incentives in determining condom use among SWs. The data reveals that SWs are on average, nearly doubling their rates for condomless sex. Our findings that SWs are engaging in condomless sex to increase their earnings, illustrates the point that the context in which they operate influences condom negotiation and consequently, increases risky sexual behaviour.
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76.
  • Govender, Kaymarlin, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of a Short Message Service (SMS) Intervention on Reduction of HIV Risk Behaviours and Improving HIV Testing Rates Among Populations located near Roadside Wellness Clinics: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial in South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: AIDS and behavior. - 1573-3254. ; 23:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Short Message Service (SMS) offers an innovative method of promoting sexual health to key and vulnerable populations who are users of mobile phones and are at high risk of HIV infection. This cluster randomised control trial tests the effectiveness of a SMS intervention in reducing HIV risk behaviours and improving HIV testing behaviours among truck drivers, sex workers and community residents located near Roadside Wellness Clinics (RWCs) in three southern African countries. The SMS arm received 35 HIV risk reduction and HIV testing SMSs over a 6-month period. The SMS intervention had no significant impact on sexual risk behaviours. However, participants in the SMS arm were more likely to have tested for HIV in the previous 6 months (86.1% vs. 77.7%; AOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.11-2.66). The results indicate that the general SMS intervention, which provide health promoting information, improved HIV testing rates in key and vulnerable populations in southern Africa.
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77.
  • Lindskog, Annika, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Intimate Partner Violence and HIV Infection in sub-Saharan Africa
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: World Development. - 0305-750X .- 1873-5991. ; 72, s. 27-42
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigate the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV among married and cohabiting women in sub-Saharan Africa. We find a strong association, and that it is primarily due to higher HIV risk among violent men; neither women's decreased ability to protect themselves from HIV within marriage, nor their risky sexual behavior, explains the link. Thus, it is not violence per se that spreads HIV, but that violent men are more likely to become HIV positive and then infect their wives. Programs that aim at reducing HIV by eliminating IPV should therefore also focus on men's risky sexual behavior. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
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78.
  • Lindskog, Annika, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • To educate a woman and to educate a man: Gender-specific sexual behaviour and HIV responses to an education reform in Botswana
  • 2019
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Education has been suggested as a ‘vaccine’ against HIV infection, but there is not much causal evidence behind this claim. Moreover, the few studies that exist on the impact of education on HIV infection and related outcomes have focused mostly on women, despite the fact that there are reasons to expect the responses of women and men to differ. This study analyses mechanisms that link education to HIV with a focus on gender differences, using data from four nationally representative surveys in Botswana. To estimate the casual effect, an exogenous one-year increase of junior secondary school is used, which in previous studies has been found to reduce HIV infection rates and increase incomes. The key finding is that women and men responded differently to the reform. It led to delayed sexual debut by up to a year among women and an increase in risky sex among men, measured by number of concurrent sexual partnerships and the likelihood of paying for sex. The increase in risky sex among men is likely to be due to the reform’s positive impact on income. The school reform reduced the likelihood of HIV infection among women, but had no statistically significant impact on this variable among men.
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79.
  • Loening, J, et al. (författare)
  • Inflation Dynamics and Food Prices in an Agricultural Economy: The Case of Ethiopia
  • 2009
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Ethiopia has experienced a historically unprecedented increase in inflation, mainly driven by cereal price inflation, which is among the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using monthly data over the past decade, we estimate error correction models to identify the relative importance of several factors contributing to overall inflation and its three major components, cereal prices, food prices and non-food prices. Our main finding is that, in the long run, domestic food and non-food prices are determined by the exchange rate and international food and goods prices. In the short to medium run, agricultural supply shocks and inflation inertia strongly affect domestic inflation, causing large deviations from long-run price trends. Money supply growth affects food price inflation in the short run, though excess money supply does not seem to drive inflation in the long run. Our results suggest a challenging time ahead for Ethiopia, with the need for a multipronged approach to fight inflation. Forecast scenarios suggest monetary and exchange rate policies need to take into account the cereal sector, as food staple growth is among the key determinants of inflation, assuming a decline in global commodity prices. Implementation of successful policies will be contingent on the availability of foreign exchange and the performance of agriculture.
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  • Resultat 71-79 av 79
  • Föregående 1...234567[8]
 
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