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Sökning: WFRF:(Eisman John A.)

  • Resultat 11-15 av 15
  • Föregående 1[2]
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11.
  • Styrkarsdottir, Unnur, et al. (författare)
  • GWAS of bone size yields twelve loci that also affect height, BMD, osteoarthritis or fractures
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bone area is one measure of bone size that is easily derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. In a GWA study of DXA bone area of the hip and lumbar spine (N ≥ 28,954), we find thirteen independent association signals at twelve loci that replicate in samples of European and East Asian descent (N = 13,608 – 21,277). Eight DXA area loci associate with osteoarthritis, including rs143384 in GDF5 and a missense variant in COL11A1 (rs3753841). The strongest DXA area association is with rs11614913[T] in the microRNA MIR196A2 gene that associates with lumbar spine area (P = 2.3 × 10 −42 , β = −0.090) and confers risk of hip fracture (P = 1.0 × 10 −8 , OR = 1.11). We demonstrate that the risk allele is less efficient in repressing miR-196a-5p target genes. We also show that the DXA area measure contributes to the risk of hip fracture independent of bone density.
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13.
  • Baldock, Paul A., et al. (författare)
  • Vitamin D action and regulation of bone remodeling : suppression of osteoclastogenesis by the mature osteoblast
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. - : AMBMR. - 0884-0431. ; 21:10, s. 26-1618
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • UNLABELLED: Vitamin D acts through the immature osteoblast to stimulate osteoclastogenesis. Transgenic elevation of VDR in mature osteoblasts was found to inhibit osteoclastogenesis associated with an altered OPG response. This inhibition was confined to cancellous bone. This study indicates that vitamin D-mediated osteoclastogenesis is regulated locally by OPG production in the mature osteoblast.INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D stimulates osteoclastogenesis acting through its nuclear receptor (VDR) in immature osteoblast/stromal cells. This mobilization of calcium stores does not occur in a random manner, with bone preferentially removed from cancellous bone. The process whereby the systemic, humoral regulator is targeted to a particular region of the skeleton is unclear.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bone resorption was assessed in mice with vitamin D receptor transgenically elevated in mature osteoblasts (OSVDR). Vitamin D-mediated osteoclastogenesis was examined in vitro using OSVDR osteoblasts and osteoblastic RANKL: osteoprotegerin (OPG) examined in vivo and in vitro after vitamin D treatment.RESULTS: Vitamin D-mediated osteoclastogenesis was reduced in OSVDR mice on chow and calcium-restricted diets, with effects confined to cancellous bone. OSVDR osteoblasts had a reduced capacity to support osteoclastogenesis in culture. The vitamin D-mediated reduction in OPG expression was reduced in OSVDR osteoblasts in vivo and in vitro, resulting in a reduced RANKL/OPG ratio in OSVDR compared with wildtype, after exposure to vitamin D.CONCLUSIONS: Mature osteoblasts play an inhibitory role in bone resorption, with active vitamin D metabolites acting through the VDR to increase OPG. This inhibition is less active in cancellous bone, effectively targeting this region for resorption after the systemic release of activated vitamin D metabolites.
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14.
  • Ahlborg, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence and risk factors for low trauma fractures in men with prostate cancer.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Bone. - : Elsevier. - 1873-2763. ; 43, s. 556-560
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Men with prostate cancer on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are at increased risk of bone loss. The present study sought to determine the incidence of low trauma fracture in men with prostate cancer (PC), and to characterize the association between potential risk factors and fracture risk in these men. METHODS: In the prospective, population-based Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study, 43 men aged 60+ years reported a history of prostate cancer; among whom, 22 men received ADT, and 21 men did not. Low-trauma fractures were ascertained between 1989 and 2004. Bone mineral density at the femoral neck (FNBMD), postural instability and lifestyle factors were obtained at baseline. RESULTS: Men with prostate cancer had significantly higher lumbar spine BMD than those without cancer (p=0.013). During the follow-up period, 15 men with prostate cancer had sustained a fracture, yielding the age-adjusted incidence of fracture among this group was 31.6 per 1000 person-years, which was greater than those without cancer (22.1 per 1000 person-years). The age-adjusted incidence of fracture was more pronounced among those with prostate cancer on ADT (40.2 per 1000 person-years). After adjusting for age, the increase in fracture risk among prostate cancer patients was associated with lower femoral neck BMD (hazard ratio [HR] per SD=1.8, 95% CI: 1.0-3.4) and increased rate of bone loss (HR 2.3, 1.2-4.6). CONCLUSIONS: Men with prostate cancer, particularly those treated with ADT, had an increased fracture risk. Although the average BMD in men with prostate cancer was higher than men without cancer, a low BMD prior to treatment or increased rate of bone loss after initiating ADT treatment was each a significant predictor of fracture in these.
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15.
  • Nguyen, Nguyen D., et al. (författare)
  • Residual lifetime risk of fractures in women and men
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. - : AMBMR. - 1523-4681. ; 22:6, s. 781-788
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a sample of 1358 women and 858 men, >= 60 yr of age who have been followed-up for up to 15 yr, it was estimated that the mortality-adjusted residual lifetime risk of fracture was 44 % for women and 25 % for men. Among those with BMD T-scores <=-2.5, the risks increased to 65% in women and 42% in men. Introduction: Risk assessment of osteoporotic fracture is shifting from relative risk to an absolute risk approach. Whereas BMD is a primary predictor of fracture risk, there has been no estimate of mortality-adjusted lifetime risk of fracture by BMD level. The aim of the study was to estimate the residual lifetime risk of fracture (RLRF) in elderly men and women. Materials and Methods: Data from 1358 women and 858 men >= 60 yr of age as of 1989 of white background from the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study were analyzed. The participants have been followed for up to 15 yr. During the follow-up period, incidence of low-trauma, nonpathological fractures, confirmed by X-ray and personal interview, were recorded. Incidence of mortality was also recorded. BMD at the femoral neck was measured by DXA (GE-LUNAR) at baseline. Residual lifetime risk of fracture from the age of 60 was estimated by the survival analysis taking into account the competing risk of death. Results: After adjusting for competing risk of death, the RLRF for women and men from age 60 was 44% (95% CI, 40-48) and 25% (95% CI, 19-31), respectively. For individuals with osteoporosis (BMD T-scores <= -2.5), the mortality-adjusted lifetime risk of any fracture was 65% (95% CI, 58-73) for women and 42% (95% CI, 24-71) for men. For the entire cohort, the lifetime risk of hip fracture was 8.5% (95% CI, 6-11%) for women and 4% (95% CI, 1.3-5.4%) for men; risk of symptomatic vertebral fracture was 18% (95% CI, 15-21%) for women and 11% (95% CI, 7-14%) for men. Conclusions: These estimates provide a means to communicate the absolute risk of fracture to an individual patient and can help promote the identification and targeting of high-risk individuals for intervention.
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  • Resultat 11-15 av 15
  • Föregående 1[2]
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